Hidiki Tojo

Hidiki Tojo was leader of the Imperial Rule Assistance Association, General of the Imperial Japanese Army and Japan’s 27th Prime Minister during the World War II period.

  1. Timeline

Hidiki Tojo was born on 30th December 1884 in Kōjimachi, Tokyo, Japan. He was executed on 23rd December 1948 in Sugamo Prison, Tokyo by hanging.

  1. Country

Japan

  1. Rise To Power

Hidiki Tojo was not satisfied with his position after he was assigned to become a General in the Imperial Japanese Army, so he also took up positions of Education Minister, Prime Minister, Commerce Minister, Army Minister, Foreign Minister and Home Minister. In the hope of rising to power along with Adolf Hitler, he made ties with Nazis. He was responsible for death of more than 5 million individuals, by attacking other countries in Asia relentlessly.

5.Dictatorship

Hidiko Tojo became Prime Minister of Japan on 16th October 1941. He ordered an organized attack on Pearl Harbor. For many years he was an Army General and admired many dictators from Europe as well as Adolf Hitler. He was all for war and during World War II he was Minister of War.  The violent Tojo was sent to prison eventually.

6.End Of Regime

Japan was fighting wars but Emperor Hirohito was not keen on the wars which were then taken care of by Hidiko Tojo. After being charged of war crimes, he attempted suicide but was not successful in killing himself. He was found guilty on seven counts and executed on 23rd December 1948.

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7.Short Term Impact

Despite civil interference and tight budgets, Hidiko Tojo improved and upgraded the fighting capabilities of Japan. In close association with the army faction he climbed up the command ladders. Against China, he played an important role in opening hostilities. The actions of Tojo seemed beneficial always. In 1941, the attack on Pearl Harbor on his command led the United States into the war and Japan surrendered ultimately. For the atomic bomb attack on Nagasaki and Hiroshima, Tojo was partially responsible.

8.Long Term Impact

Japan was devastated in the 1941 war. Severe damage was caused to transportation networks, industries and large cities. For several years, Japan faced food shortage. Tojo developed relationship with foreign leaders including Benito Mussolini and Adolf Hitler in Axis Power. The Axis powers were founded officially after signing the Tripartite Pact in September 1940, when Italy, Japan and Germany became part of military alliance.

9.Trivia

Hidiki Tojo’s nickname was Razor

As a national leader he was surprisingly indecisive.

After World War II, he was arrested for his crimes.

At the Japanese Military Academy, out of 363 candidates, he ranked 10th.

6.Nicholas II

1.Introduction

Nicholas II or Nickolai was Russia’s last emperor under Romanov rule. He was an anti-semitic leader who was very violent though idealistic.

  1. Timeline

Nicholas II was born on 18th May 1868 at Alexander Palace, Pushkin, Saint Petersburg, Russia. He was assassinated on 17th July 1918 at Ipatiev House, Yekaterinburg, Russia.

  1. Country

Russia

  1. Rise To Power

Nicholas II received education through a government official of high rank and many other private tutors. This future leader was heir apparent after Alexander III his father. He joined the army at 19 years of age and attended political meetings. In 1894, Alexander III, his father died after which he inherited the throne. He had to forcibly create an elected legislature even though he had strong belief in autocracy. During his early reign, rather than conquering new territory, his main aim was maintaining the status quo in Europe. Russia lost the battle with Japan in 1904 after which he entered into peace negotiations with Japan. To take direct control of the military from Grand Duke Nicholas, he appointed himself as commander-in-chief at the beginning of World War I.

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 5.Dictatorship

Nicholas II This leader cost Russia around three million lives and ruled Russia from 1st November 1894 to 15th March 1917, until his forced abdication and execution. His way of handling the Bloody Sunday and role of Russia in the World War I was poor which incensed the Bolsheviks enough to execute him.

6.End Of Regime

Russia was subjected to very high inflation, extreme poverty and endured huge losses over the course of World War II. It was for Nicholas II’s poor military decisions that the Russians blamed him. The people believed that his wife Empress Alexandra played an ill-advised role in the government as well. On 15th March 1917, Nicholas II had to step down from his monarchy, abducted from his throne and put under house arrest at the Ural Mountains along with his family. The Bolsheviks murdered him and his family on 17th July 1918, thus ending Romanov dynasty’s rule of more than 3 centuries.

7.Short Term Impact

Nicholas II was the considered the most incompetent Tsar of Russia. He failed to adapt to hostile and rapidly changing conditions in Russia. One reason for his downfall was his strong autocratic mentality. During his reign the number of successes was lesser than his failures.

  1. Long Term Impact

Nicholas II put currency of Russia on the gold standard, came up with protective tariffs and reforms on foreign investment and foreign goods but ignorance of peasants through lack of agricultural reforms, low wages and high taxation which instead caused a lot of dissent towards the Tsar. The limited reforms Nicholas II came up with were mostly superficial in nature. In the 1904-1905 Russo-Japanese War, Russia lost, exposing the country’s inept bureaucracy and military.

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9.Trivia

After the violent suppression of the 1905 revolution, he was nicknamed as ‘Bloody Nicholas’ by his enemies.

He was known as autocrat and Emperor of all Russia.

He took unwise decisions while taking personal charge of armies during World War I.

Nicholas II’s family was the last of the royal Holstein-Gottorp-Romanov line.

It was thought for decades that Anastasia, his daughter had escaped execution, but there is little basis for that.

 

Hidiki Tojo was leader of the Imperial Rule Assistance Association