Theory of Knowledge

What Is Theory Of Knowledge?

One area that has captured imagination in the area of epistemology is scepticism of the philosophical kind. Besides the question on what exactly knowledge is, the other question is whether people know anything at all. The tradition followed in philosophical study indicates that people do not know anything. In support of this there have been a number of arguments resisted by many. In Theory of Knowledge, one problem that is most persistent is whether or not there is anything such as knowledge and not from where it comes or what exactly knowledge is.

The IBDP or the IB Diploma Program prepares the student for attaining success in life and higher education in society all over the globe. It is a balanced education program and academically challenging. Students between the age 16 and 18 get prepared to attain success at the university level and later on in life by clearing the final exams of the IBDP. The program addresses the student’s physical, intellectual, emotional and social well being. Leading universities across the world have recognized this program. The three topics covered are the EE – Extended Essay, CAS – Creativity, Action, Service and TOK – Theory of Knowledge under the program. These three important things set the IB diploma apart from other programs of similar type. The IB diploma considers the skills that could be yours by doing the course. The IB course is demanding and superior indeed.

Taking Up The IB Course To Understand TOK

To understand what TOK is, you will have to take up the course, conduct research on the issue in concern, form opinions of your own and put an effort to defend those opinions and issues. Most of all, you will also need to take the help of fellow students as well as the coordinator or class teacher.

Theory of Knowledge is nothing but about opinion formation, debating, discussing about issues and putting an effort in the way the ideas and thoughts are structured. It is not about being opinionated and cynical but being well informed, objective and interested. If your mind hungers for knowledge available around then you are sure to gain more. The only thing is you need to have the desire to seek and learn more.

What Is The Theory Of Knowledge

The study of the theory of knowledge or TOK is termed as epistemology. In philosophy, it is one area that is most important. TOK is a subject offered at a number of IB schools all over the world.

A number of questions are addressed by TOK. In epistemology, one problem that is encountered is about defining what knowledge is. The tripartite theory of knowledge is generally used by a number of philosophers, in which knowledge is analysed as a working model and a true belief that is justified. However this theory is refuted. Justifications are available that knowledge does not constitute true beliefs. Many proposals have been put forward on knowledge’s rival analyses but yet there is no consensus available on what actually knowledge is about. There is still no solution available on the epistemology’s fundamental question.

When the term knowledge is being used, generally most people understand what is being talked about. The next issue addressed in epistemology is the kind of ultimate source knowledge has. Our knowledge is held by two traditions, namely, rationalism and empiricism. In rationalism, knowledge is held on the basis of reason, primarily while in empiricism, knowledge is held on the basis of experience, primarily. The worldview in the scientific modern world borrows from empiricism, heavily.

How The TOK Course Helps

• The world is changing on a regular basis. A different method of learning will be required if new ideas have to be understood, and people have to keep up with the changes that keep happening regularly.

• Questions on key knowledge that are presented in real life situations are well explained in the TOK.

• If you are on the lookout for revitalizing the approach to deliver The Theory of Knowledge or are new to the subject, then the TOK course will prove to be most useful for you.

• If you are doing this subject for the very first time, then describing this theory can be a difficult task for you. This course may not be like the other kinds of subjects studied in school or diploma courses. You may wonder if the study is on the basis of humanities, sciences, is it philosophy or whether it is a skills based study.

• In IB schools, this course is mandatory. You don’t have to get annoyed as there is no coursework or exam at the end of the course. There is only an assessment and the grade awarded in not out of seven.

• It draws on ideas on many of the thinkers who have been famous all over the world. It contains specific parts that help in effective study of other subjects.

• If you want to think more deeply and clearly then all that you need to do is look at its fundamental aim. You will have to study knowledge areas and the methods of knowing or perceiving those knowledge areas. The next process is working out the connections between yourself as a knower and those knowledge areas.

Importance of the DP program – Point Awarding

In the second year of the course the student is assessed in two ways. The Extended Essay has to be written which is then marked by an external examiner. Six titles are provided for the essay from which you have to choose one. To complete it you are given time at home and class both. The teacher also will give you marks for the oral presentation. Accordingly you will be given marks out of 10 for the assignment and the oral presentation. These marks along with the extended essay will provide you with the overall grade. 3 extra points are provided by the overall grade to the overall grad and overall marks out of 45. To clear the Diploma, it is important to pass the TOK. It does not matter even if you have excelled in the other subjects as you also need to do well in the TOK as well. If you fail you will not be awarded the IB diploma. So it is important to ensure that the TOK grades are sufficient enough as well.

Fashion Designing Guide

Subjects To Be Chosen By Students Planning On Fashion Designing

If you have taken up a career in fashion designing, then your job will involve the making of different kinds of clothing like skirts, pants, suits and dresses besides making other kinds of accessories like shoes and designing jewellery pieces etc. While some of the designers work in various fields, there are some others who prefer to specialize in just one or two fields. Creating wardrobes for theatre productions, movies and television is also one of the jobs of a fashion designer. All through the world there are thousands of fashion designers working for manufacturers, retailers, wholesalers, dance companies, theatres, design firms, etc. Some work part time while others are self employed fashion designers. They have to work for long hours especially if there is an approaching deadline or an upcoming fashion show.

A college degree is not required to become a fashion designer, but if you want to compete then having a bachelor’s or associate degree certainly helps. The coursework covers a range of topics including making patterns, tailoring, sewing, understanding the history of fashion, textiles, learning about colours, CAD or computer aided design, different types of footwear, menswear, women’s-wear etc. the world a fashion designing career is one of the highest paying careers.

Fashion Institute of Technology (FIT)

Fee Structure In Indian Rupees

If you are a resident of New York State then the yearly fees you will have to pay for the fashion designing course is approximately $5200 or Rupees 3,07,000. For out of state residents the course fee range is around $12000 or Rupees 7,08,000. It is cheaper than many of the fashion schools. A number of famous fashion designers have graduated from this school including Ralph Rucci, Nina Garcia, Calvin Klein, Carolina Herrera etc.

Length Of The Course

Students can take up a part time, full time or evening or weekend program in fashion designing. Students can take up fashion related degrees in visual arts, textiles, business and fashion marketing in addition to fashion designing.

Eligibility

Evaluation is done on the basis of student essay, grades in college preparatory course and class rank. For review a portfolio has to be submitted for the Art and Designs program. There is no requirement for recommendation letters.

Job Opportunities After Completing The Course

With a fashion designing degree you can work independently as a fashion designer or work for any of the reputed designing companies, theatre, dance companies wholesalers, manufacturers etc.

London College of Fashion

Fee Structure In Indian Rupees

The tuition fees for the first year resident students fall in the range of $1500 or Rupees 88,500. For international students the fees including board and room fees is around $18,375 or Rupees 10,84,000 per year. Famous graduates from this fashion school include Patrick Cox, Alek Wek and Jimmy Choo.

Length Of The Course

Depending upon your choice you can consider a full time or a part time fashion designing course at this fashion designing school. Unique fashion designing programs are offered at this college including image styling, makeup, accessories, footwear, fashion business, fashion criticism and curation, etc.

Eligibility

The program is open mainly to retail and majors in apparel design. There is no language requirement while the GPA or grade point average required is 3.0 on a scale of 4.0.

Job Opportunities After Completing The Course

The fashion designing course develops your creative side and helps you specialize in designing accessories and fashion clothing. It keeps you aware of the changing opportunities and demands prevalent in this industry and accordingly become an established fashion designer.

Royal Academy of Fine Arts (Antwerp)

Fee Structure In Indian Rupees

The tuition fees which do not include board and room fees range about $825 for the year for international students. Bruno Pieters, Kris Van Assche, Martin, Margiela, Haider Ackermann, Dries Van Noten are some of the famous fashion designers who have graduated from this elite school.

Length Of The Course

Depending upon your choice and requirements you can consider a part time or full time fashion designing course as this school.

Eligibility

A student interested in joining this fashion school needs to be exceptionally innovative, experimental, dedicated and have a sensibility of avante garde. If you know Dutch then it will help in getting admission right away.

Job Opportunities After Completing The Course

If you are looking towards starting a fashion house of your own then you can do so after the completion of the extensive training provided at this fashion school. Otherwise you can also consider working for the fashion, theatre or film industry, manufacturers and retailers as well.

Parsons The New School for Design

Fee Structure In Indian Rupees

The tuition fees, not including the board and room fees, are around $41,000 or Rupees 24,19,000 per year. Lazaro Hernandez, Jack McCollough, Jason Wu, Tom Ford, Doo Ri Chung and many other famous fashion designers have graduated from this fashion school.

Length Of The Course

Depending upon your requirement a full time or a part time, twenty five different fashion designing courses can be considered at this fashion designing school.

Eligibility

Even if a graduation degree is not required, it is necessary to complete the internship work contract, approval of the New School International Student Services for students on a student’s visa. Besides this, internship guidelines have to be followed for eligibility.

Job Opportunities After Completing The Course

One you complete the fashion designing course at this school then you can work in any of the competitive fashion related industries over the globe. In fact you can get started with starting you own fashion designing service as well and earn an excellent income.

Central St.Martins

Fee Structure In Indian Rupees

The course fee for international students is $18,375 or Rupees 10,84,125 approximately. The fees do not include board or the room fees. Some of the popular fashion designers graduated from this fashion school include Zac Posen, Hussein Chalayan, Paul Smith, Alexander McQueen and Stella McCartney

Length Of The Course

As per your choice you can consider short and full time courses, day time, weekend or evening course at this fashion school.

Eligibility

A number of talented students from Britain seek admission at this elite fashion school which is funded partially by the government. It has a legendary staff for teaching.

Job Opportunities After Completing The Course

The fashion school itself helps students go about finding suitable job opportunities in the fashion designing industry. To support your fashion designing business, suitable contacts and advice is provided. You can even initiate your own business or begin working for fashion related industries.

Chartered Accountancy Guide

Subjects To Be Chosen By Students Planning On CA

Many of the students in the commerce stream opt for the Chartered Accountancy course. This field is a highly rewarding one. Besides this, the salaries are high and you get high level of respect and prestige. Often the salaries of many other professionals come to an end at the level where the salaries of a Chartered Accountant start.

A number of jobs like implementing accounting standards, audit solutions, accounting and practice ethics in business come under the purview of a chartered accountant. CAs are considered for top management, frontline managers, CEOs, CFOs, Department Heads and Company Secretaries, to name a few. A CA qualification helps you to practice anywhere across the globe. The course allows rapid growth to those taking up the program and helps them become experts in audit and accountancy. Students become aware of the latest practices in business, law, information and technology, human resource management, marketing etc. Fees are not very high and the student can practice privately, after course completion.

Various subjects that are taught in the CA program include functional English, quantitative methods, introduction to finance, economic, mercantile law and financial accounting, taxation, company law, business communication and behavioural studies, cost accounting, audit and control, information technology management, advanced accounting and financial reporting, business management, corporate laws, advanced accounting, advanced taxation, business finance decision and management accounting.

1. New York University (Stern) New York, NY

Fee Structure In Indian Rupees

The fee structure ranges around $1,11,708 or Rupees 6,5,90,772 for a full time course.

Length Of The Course

Students can opt for the full time two year CA course or the part time one year course.

Eligibility

An average GMAT score, a GPA or Grade Point Average ranging from 3.36 to 3.52 and post graduate work experience will make the student eligible for the CA course at this university.

Job Opportunities After Completing The Course

The average salary a CA student from this university can earn is around $10,7,875 in many of the top industries and financial consultancy services across the world.

2. University of Notre Dame (Mendonza), Notre Dame, IN

Fee Structure In Indian Rupees

The course fees range around $90,410 or Rupees 53,34,190 per year

Length Of The Course

Students can join a one year course or the two year CA course as per their requirement.

Eligibility

If you have an average GMAT score, average post graduate work experience, GPA or Grade Point Average between the range of 3.3 to 3.6 established, then you can stand a chance of getting admission at this university.

Job Opportunities After Completing The Course

Students completing a CA course at this university can expect an average salary of $98,623 at many of the top financial services, technology and financial consulting organizations. Many of the top employers of the world are always on the lookout for students who have obtained a CA degree from this university. In fact just after completing the course, students are sure to start getting job offers.

3. University of Liverpool

Fee Structure In Indian Rupees

The fees cover the cost of registration, tuition, graduation and examinations. The fee for a full time Home or EU postgraduate student is in the range of 12,000 pounds or Rupees 10,80,000. Full costs have to be paid by international students.

Length Of The Course

Full time CA course of one year is offered by University of Liverpool.

Eligibility

Students need to hold an Honours degree in any discipline, have extensive professional experience, have a appropriate work experience of 3 years and meet the required level of English.

Job Opportunities After Completing The Course

Students completing their CA at this university are sure to access some of the best managerial positions including blue chips service and manufacturing companies, management, major financial and accountancy service companies and other sectors related to information technologies, engineering, construction and retailing.

4. University of North Carolina-Chapel Hill (Kenan-Flagler) Chapel Hill, NC

Fee Structure In Indian Rupees

For the full time CA course the fees including living expenses are $58,714 or Rupees 34,64,126 for NC residents per year and $78,146 or Rupees 46, 10,614 for non NC residents.

Length Of The Course

Students can consider a full time CA course at this university or various other CA executive programs depending upon their qualifications and requirements.

Eligibility

The students need to be well qualified for the competitive and highly ranked CA program. You need to have the drive towards success in this career and have related education experience. Students seeking admission need to have an excellent track record of results, organizational and leadership abilities, interpersonal and communication skills, motivation, drive, teamwork, prior academic performance, problem solving abilities and analytical skills besides career goals and career progression. Before admission a full time work experience of two years is required besides which knowledge of calculus, statistics, financial accounting and microeconomics is important. Orientation may be needed if you have not accomplished certain qualifications.

Job Opportunities After Completing The Course

Students completing the CA course at this university can find some of the best of jobs in various accountancy service and financial organizations, blue chip manufacturing and service companies, management, engineering, retailing and construction companies and in the process earn the best of salaries.

5. University of Southern California (Marshall) Los Angeles, CA

Fee Structure In Indian Rupees

Fee for the full time CA course is approximately $48515 or Rupees 2862385. The fees are around $1511 or Rupees 89149 for the part time courses.

Length Of The Course

This university offers a full time CA course of two years, part time CA course for ranging up to 33 months for managers and professionals, executive CA program, the Master of Accounting program, Master of Business Taxation, Executive and Global Executive Education Program and PhD.

Eligibility

To apply for admission you will need to have the following requirements include four year’s bachelor’s degree, recommendation letters, official academic transcripts, completed application form online, TOEFL, PTE, IELTS, GRE or GMAT, application fees and interview.

Job Opportunities After Completing The Course

Once you finish a CA program at this university you can be assured of getting employed at top organizations and financial companies across the world and earn the best of salaries.

MBA – Master in Business Administration

Subjects to Be Chosen By Students Planning On an MBA

MBA is the abbreviated form of Master in Business Administration. Various subjects are covered under different phases of the MBA program. In Phase I subjects like E-commerce, E-business, financial accounting, quantitative business methods and economics, corporate sustainability, governance and leadership are covered. Under phase II, subjects including international marketing, strategic management, leadership, corporate sustainability, governance, corporate finance, motivation and managing people are covered.

Depending upon the area you want to specialize, the student can cover Phase III of the MBA course which includes corporate sustainability, governance and leadership, marketing of services, ethics in business, market management, and integrated marketing communication. Besides this, multinational financial management, investment techniques, acquisitions and mergers, operations management, economics of finance, business and money, international business law, entrepreneurship, negotiation and strategic leadership are covered under Phase III.

A great way to give your resume an edge is to complete an MBA program at one of the best universities in the world. Your potential employees are sure to find the resume, very attractive. Many of the topmost universities of the world offer some of the best MBA programs. Evaluation of these MBA colleges and universities is done after considering the placement statistics, curriculum, faculty, facilities at the campus, tuition fees, etc.

INSEAD (France, Singapore)

Main focus of INSEAD is to turn executives in senior positions to leaders in business. Education in management is provided with a blend of rigor, research and excellence in teaching. Branches of this institute are located in Abu Dhabi, Singapore and France.

• Fee Structure In Indian Rupees

Current tuition fees fall in the range of Rupees 5,3,55,000 which covers costs related to on campus IT services, printed course materials, supporting services and tuition fees.

• Length Of The Course

A full time MBA program of one year is offered at the business school to choose your future, change your outlook and challenge your thinking. Besides this, students can make the most of the PhD in management and program in executive education as well.

• Eligibility

If you are excellent at demonstrating your potential as a leader, have enough past and professional experience, outstanding skills in leadership and excellent maturity and have five years of experience in work, then you can consider this MBA program.

• Job Opportunities After Completing The Course

After completing the MBA program, the student gets a better understanding of the world and accordingly expanding your world, have a positive impact on any business and promote the MBA talent pool.

London Business School, UK

One of the best MBA Colleges in the world is the London Business School, UK. Campus of this college is located in Central London. Many of the local employees working in the financial and business sectors can consider an MBA course here.

• Fee Structure In Indian Rupees

Tuition fees for the MBA course are approximately Pounds 61,400 or Indian Rupees 5,5,00,000. Length of the course is two years which includes cost of core course and elective materials for reading.

• Length Of The Course

Duration of the course is around two years. Students can take up programs related to PhD research, programs for executive education, part time EMBA and full time MBA. Before taking up the course you will need to take into consideration the potential opportunities for learning based upon managing reports and agreements taken by with companies for internships in summer.

• Eligibility

If you are intellectually capable, are experienced, ambitious, determined, have potential for leadership and are culturally aware then you can certainly take up an MBA program at this top MBA University.

• Job Opportunities After Completing The Course

By completing the MBA course at this business school can have a positive impact on your career. You can join the corporate sector, financial services or consultancy services and give a new direction to your career.

Harvard Business School (USA)

The Harvard Business School has got one of the largest networks for MBA. It is well known for its methods of using case studies for teaching. In the placement process a crucial role is played by Harvard’s endless resources.

• Fee Structure In Indian Rupees

Course fee falls in the range of Rupees 5,3,60,000.

• Length Of The Course

Duration of the course is two years. Lessons on leadership, operations management and technology, marketing, organizational behaviour, financial control and reporting are taught during the course.

• Eligibility

It is important for the student to complete a degree program at an accredited university or college, or international bachelor degree programs for three years besides clearing the Graduate Record Examination (GRE) and Graduate Management Admission Test (GMAT) examinations.

• Job Opportunities After Completing The Course

Right from international experience, case studies, to field based learning everything culminates in one large lesson that is leadership. Through multimedia simulations, course on case studies and field projects, the student is able to exercise skills in leadership and thus practice business and beyond. You learn invaluable and practical lessons in leadership to bag the best of jobs in the financial sector and world of business.

Wharton University Of Pennsylvania (USA)

The Wharton University is part of the University of Pennsylvania and was established in 1881. In the world it ranks as the second best school in management. A non disclosure policy is followed by the school. The recruitment process is not affected by the grades you get.

• Fee Structure In Indian Rupees

The tuition fee covers expenses related to meals, housing, books and tuitions. Fees are around $176,250 or Indian rupees 10,3,98,750. Parking costs and transportation are not included in the fees.

• Length Of The Course

The two year course is offered in two formats, namely the undiluted MBA which is much preferred by working professionals and the full time MBA, which is traditionally taken up.

• Eligibility

The business school seeks a diversity of interests and backgrounds from professional fields like medicine and law, non-profit organizations, public institutions and corporations in a wide range.

• Job Opportunities After Completing The Course

Wharton University of Pennsylvania prepares as well as educates influencers, entrepreneurs and innovators in the business world. The tools you gain as an MBA graduate at Wharton will put you into action, address challenges in business and enabling innovative methods of solving problems as you keep advancing in the world and your profession.

Stanford University GSB (USA)

This university was established in the year 1925 and offers certain certificate programs in MBA including public management and global management besides the general MBA degree. As part of the faculty, it has 3 Nobel laureates.

• Fee Structure In Indian Rupees

The MBA course fees ranges around Rupees 5,8,46,000 which includes health fee, medical insurance, living allowance, instructional materials, books supplies and tuition fees.

• Length Of The Course

Duration of the MBA course is for two years.

• Eligibility

A bachelor’s degree from an accredited college or university and no minimum or maximum experience is required for joining the MBA program as this university.

• Job Opportunities After Completing The Course

The supervisors at this university work hand in hand in helping students in creating a personalized plan for a bright career. Development of your professional and personal skills is facilitated to help in accelerating goal achievement and making strategic decisions.

Cyclones and Tsunamis

Cyclones and Tsunamis

At times, winds blow around a central area where the atmospheric pressure is low. This causes revolving storms or cyclones. Cyclones taking place in the northern hemisphere are termed as typhoons or hurricane. The wind flows in a circle in an anticlockwise direction. Cyclones that take place in the southern hemisphere are termed as tropical storms. The winds blow in a circle in a clockwise direction.

How Do Cyclones Develop

It is near the equator that the cyclones occur over warmer seas. Air gets heated by the sun’s rays and starts rising rapidly creating low pressure areas. When the warm air keeps rising it gets filled with lots of moisture which then undergoes condensation to form massive thunderclouds. A void remains, which then gets filled in by cooled air that rushes in. However the Earth keeps rotating around its axis constantly which makes the air bend inwards and then with great force, it starts spiralling upwards. The rotation of the swirling winds becomes faster and faster and thus forms a very huge circle upwards. This huge circle can extend to about two thousand kilometres across, also. The storm also has a centre area which is cloudless and calm and termed as the eye. Winds in this central area are fairly light and there is no rain.

The cyclone starts building up and begins moving. A flow of moist and steady air, sustains the cyclone. Heavy and strong winds are found in the clouds that tower and merge into a wall present at a distance of twenty to thirty kilometres from the centre of the storm. The wind around the centre or the eye reaches a speed of around two hundred kilometres per hour and develops as a full cyclone. Per second around two million tons of air is pumped by the cyclone leading to release of more rains.

Types Of Cyclones

• Meso-cyclone

This is a swirling and dense pack of winds and clouds that range between half to six miles width. It appears as a vertical and thin bank of clouds spinning from under the thunderstorm. If it hits the ground it can turn into a tornado and churns up warm and wet air. Meso-cyclones take place largely in the United States with many of them turning into tornadoes.

• Tropical Cyclone

Thunderstorms and clouds emerge as a rotating system and generally originate over the sub tropical or tropical regions. These cyclones take place close to the Equator generally including the Gulf of Mexico, Caribbean, Atlantic Ocean and the East Pacific Ocean. A severe storm is created leading to a cyclone with a combination of winds and moving areas with low pressure.

• Sub Tropical And Sub Polar Cyclones

Cyclones occurring between the polar areas and tropical cyclone bands are termed as sub tropical and sub polar cyclones. Even if they form in a similar way, the main variables are durability, temperature and predictability. Cyclones are random, unpredictable and colder when they occur near the Arctic Circle and could last for long or short periods.

• Arctic Or Polar Cyclones

These cyclones occur in the polar, Arctic or Antarctic regions and can be up to 1200 miles wide. They are not seasonal and can occur any time in the year. It is difficult to predict their direction as they form quickly. Siberia and Northern Russia are more prone to such cyclones.

Regions Affected By Cyclones

Many cyclones have occurred over the years leading to a huge death toll in many countries. Galveston, Texas, USA experienced a cyclone in 1900 with a death toll of ten to twelve thousand people. Society and Cook Islands were affected in 1906 in which ten thousand people were killed. Bangladesh experienced a cyclone in 1964, 1965 and 1991 with a death toll of thirty five thousand, fifteen thousand and one hundred and thirty-nine thousand people respectively. One hundred thousand people lost their lives in the Caribbean Coast in the 1970 cyclone. In Honduras, a hundred thousand people were killed in the 1977 cyclone.

What Is A Tsunami

Tsunami is a Japanese term. It means a ‘harbour wave’ in the English translation. The two characters are tsu and nami. Tsu means harbour while the term ‘nami’ means a wave. The general public termed Tsunamis as tidal waves while the scientific community termed it as sea waves of the seismic type. The coastline is impacted by the tsunami depending upon the level of tide when it strikes. Actually tides and tsunamis are not related. Tides occur due to the gravitational, extra-terrestrial, and imbalanced influence of the planets, sun and the moon. Impact of a meteorite, landslide or any event that is non seismic in nature could lead to a tsunami.

Different Types Of Tsunamis

• Regional Tsunami

This tsunami is restricted to a particular region where the casual event occurs. Huge land masses are affected in a regional tsunami. Shorelines that are affected generally have a warning of about one to three hours.

• Ocean Wide Or Distant Tsunamis

When from the causal event, the seismic waves travel to long distance it leads to distant tsunamis. An Indonesia earthquake for example can generate seismic waves in a big series thus causing a lot of damages to the African coast. Advance warning can be obtained before a distant tsunami occurs and accordingly people could be evacuated to safety.

• Meteorite

It is rare for meteorites to cause a tsunami, but at times they do happen. One such tsunami took place sixty five million years back. It is the belief of scientists that the K-T or the Cretaceous Tertiary impact caused a lot of flooding all over the world.

• Local Tsunamis

The local tsunami is restricted to a particular area that surrounds the place where the causal event occurs. Before this tsunami hits, there is hardly any warning received.

• Submarine Sediment Slide

When landslides occur on the floor of the ocean, it leads to submarine sediment slides.

• Earthquake Event

Earthquakes are the main cause in this type of a tsunami. Tsunamis are generated by the earthquakes occurring on the floor of the ocean. Tsunamis are not caused by earthquakes that occur over land.

Regions Affected By Tsunamis

On March 9, 1957, the Aleutian Island was affected by a distant tsunami. Wide spread damages took place at Haena Kauai. A regional tsunami took place in 1983 in the Sea of Japan causing severe damage in Russia, Korea and Japan. In the last thirty thousand years, three big submarine sediment slide tsunamis took place in the Storegga area off the Norway coast.

Clouds

Different Types Of Clouds

Clouds change continuously. They appear in a huge variety and in infinite forms. The WMO – World Meteorological Organization has classified clouds into ten main groups termed as genera. Depending upon the atmospheric part in which clouds are generally found, the three levels into which clouds are classified are:

CL – Cloud Low

In the Low Cloud level the different cloud types are Stratocumulus, Stratus, Cumulus and Cumulonimbus. Their base lies usually below 6500 feet over land.

CM – Cloud Medium

In the Medium cloud level the different cloud types are Altocumulus, Altostratus and Nimbostratus. Their base lies usually between 6,500 and 20,000 feet above land.

CH – Cloud High

In the High cloud level the different cloud types are Cirrus, Cirrocumulus and Cirrostratus. Their base lies usually 20,000 feet or above land.

Clouds take different kinds of shapes. They have different kinds of internal structure which has let to subdividing them in various cloud genera species.

A combination of various suffixes or prefixes is provided to give names to different types of clouds.

Types Of Clouds

• Nimbo - Rain Bearing Clouds

Nimbostratus clouds are blue and grey in colour, and are clouds without features. They are so thick that they block out the sun’s rays. Heavy snow and rain accompany these mid level clouds. When lighting, thunder or hail accompanies it then it becomes a nimbostratus cloud.

• Strato / Stratus – Smooth, Layered Or Flat Clouds

Strato clouds have the appearance of a rounded, dark and large mass in waves, lines or groups, usually. They are shallow layers of clouds due to stable and dry air which prevent their continual vertical development.

Stratus is a patch or low level clump of cloud. It varies from dark grey to bright white colour. The base is well defined and some of the parts are darker as compared to the rest. The stratus clouds are patches of grey and low level clouds having fuzzy edges. They appear in the form of fog or mist at ground level and snow grains, snow or drizzle may accompany these clouds.

• Cumulo / Cumulus - Puffy Or Heaped Up, Cauliflower-Like Clouds

Cumulonimbus are dense, heavy, low level clouds or thunderclouds extending high into the sky in plumes, tower or peaks in mountain shape. Hail storms, heavy torrential downpour, tornados and lighting accompany the cumulonimbus clouds.

Cumulus clouds come in the shape of a detached cauliflower and are seen mainly in fair weather. Showers are produced if they get bigger. When lit by the sun, the top of the cloud is brilliant white while the base remains relatively dark.

• Cirro / Cirrus – Wispy Or High Up Clouds

Cirrocumulus clouds are cloudlets or white clouds composed of ice crystals and form at high levels in groups. They don’t have any shading.

Cirrus is hair-like, delicate, detached, short, wispy clouds that look like tufts of hair and have a silky sheen. In the sky they are whiter as compared to any other cloud. They take on the colours of the sunset, at times.

• Alto – Medium Level Clouds

Altocumulus are grey or white cloudlets or small patches or mild level layers of clouds which appear in the form of rounded clumped shapes. Their sides are shaded and remain away from the sun and are generally seen in settled weather.

Altrostratus are blue or grey coloured, thin, mid level clouds composed of a mixture of crystals of ice and droplets of water. They are so thin that even a weak sun can be seen through the cloud. These clouds are featureless and extend to thousands of square miles.

What Is A Cloud

Clouds are crystals of ice or tiny drops of water that settle on particles of dust in the atmosphere. Size of the water drops is extremely small – about a diameter of about a 100th of a millimetre. Around 100 million water droplets are contained in every cubic meter of air. Depending upon the clouds height and the atmospheric temperature, water droplets or ice is contained within the clouds. At times the droplets are so tiny that they continue to remain in the form of liquid in low temperatures ranging up to -30 °C. When the temperatures go below -30 °C, the clouds are composed of crystals of ice. These clouds are extremely high clouds.

Cloud Formation

When invisible water vapour present in the air, undergoes condensation and become crystals of ice or droplets of water, clouds are formed. All around you, water is present in the form of very tiny particles of gas, also termed as water vapour. Dust or salt also are the other forms of tiny particles, called aerosols that float around in the air. The aerosols and the water vapour keep bumping into each other, constantly. When cooling of air takes place, some amount of the water vapour collides on to the aerosols and sticks on them, in a process called condensation. Due to this condensation, bigger droplets of water start forming around the particles of aerosol which leads to the formation of clouds.

When there is saturation in the air and the air cannot hold any more of the water vapour, then clouds are formed.

Different Ways Clouds Are Formed

Clouds are formed in two different ways

Clouds are formed when there is an increase of amount of water in the air. There comes a point when the air is not able to hold any more water, leading to cloud formation.

Clouds are formed when condensation occurs. The air cools to its dew point and is not able to hold any more water.

More water vapour can be held by the air, if it is warmer. It is through condensation that production of clouds takes place. When air rises, it starts cooling, it reduces air temperature, due to which it is not able to hold water and leads to the occurrence of condensation. Condensation level is the height at which dew point is attained and clouds are formed.

Why Do Clouds Form?

There are five factors responsible for rising of air, cooling of air and formation of clouds.

• Turbulence

At times due to height levels, the speed of wind changes suddenly. In the air turbulent eddies are thus created.

• Orographic forcing or topography

Features or shape of an area, or the topography leads to formation of clouds. When there are mountains or hills, air is forced to rise and as it rises, it cools, leading to the formation of layered clouds.

• Heating of surface

Due to the sun’s heat, the ground gets heated which in turn, heats the air which comes in contact with it leading to rising of air. Cumulus clouds are produced with these rising columns of air, termed as thermals.

• Convergence

At times streams of air coming from various directors, rise, while converging or flowing together. This leads to showery conditions or formation of cumulus clouds.

• Frontal

At times a mass or warmed up air, rises along fronts over large areas or over a cloud mass, leading to the forming of clouds. The boundary between drier, cooler, moist and warm air is termed as a ‘front’.

The atmosphere is variable by nature and the range at which the clouds form, results in clouds of different textures, sizes, shapes and varieties.

Weather Stations

What Are Weather Stations

It is very helpful to have an update on the weather conditions if you have to go out on a picnic or have some outdoor plans. You may expect the weather to be sunny and bright but instead get heavy rain showers. It you know in advance what kind of weather you are going to face then it surely can prove to be very advantageous for you. Once you know about the conditions of weather you can either cancel or set your plans for going outdoors. There are a number of weather stations that are popularly used.

What Is A Weather Station

A weather station provides information on climatic conditions and weather. It is a facility located on sea or land with equipment and instruments that can help in giving information on weather. It helps in studying about climate and weather conditions.

Where Are Weather Stations Located

Weather stations are located at places where it is possible to collect only reliable and accurate data. Hence it is ensured that the no obstacles like shadows cast or the wind obstruct or block flow of data. Besides this, a fence also surrounds the weather station so that the equipment does not get damaged and stray animals do not get in. The Stevenson Screen is an important part which is used to hold the thermometers at the weather stations. Information gathered from the weather stations as well as the other sources is termed as weather charts or synoptic charts.

Kinds Of Measurements Taken At Weather Stations

Different kinds of measurements are taken which include amount of precipitation, temperature, direction of the wind, barometric pressure, speed of wind and humidity. When measurement of wind is taken it has to be free of any kind of obstructions. In the case of measuring humidity and temperature it should be free from insolation or solar radiation. Automated observations can be taken all through the day at least once during 60 minutes. Manual observations are taken one time, every day.

Other Kinds Of Instruments

Weather stations also employ other kinds of instruments to measure weather. They include:

• Ceilometer – It is used to measure ceiling of clouds

• Present Precipitation / Weather Identification Sensor – It is used to identify falling precipitation

• Transmissometer – It is used to measure visibility

• Disdrometer – It is used to measure the distribution of size of water drops

Nowadays there are sophisticated weather stations which also measure temperature of the soil, ultraviolet index, temperature of water in rivers, ponds, creeks and lakes, solar radiation, wetness of leaves and other kinds of data, occasionally.

Types Of Weather Stations

• Personal Weather Stations

A digital console is involved in a personal weather station. It provides readouts of collected data. The consoles are interfaced to a personal computer where data is uploaded, stored and collected to systems related to data distribution, data ingestion or websites. A personal weather station is operated with the sole purpose of availing knowledge by the owner and for enjoyment. Data obtained can also be shared with others with the use of amateur radio or internet for the purpose of distribution and data compilation.

• Wireless Weather Station

To make this wireless weather station work, batteries are used. Data is transmitted to the storage unit and the central display with the help of sensors present in the weather station unit. There is no need setting up complicated wiring around your house, since it is a wireless system.

• Home Weather Stations

The weather reports that are generally available are for major cities. You may not be able to get an idea on specific weather conditions in the area you stay in. In such a case you can determine weather, with the help of a home weather station. You can get an idea on outdoor weather conditions and that too in the comfort of your home. Depending upon the information you want to obtain from the weather station and the type of design, accordingly you can select a suitable type of home weather station.

The home weather station is best used in small offices and homes. To measure solar radiation, wind and rain gauges, the home weather station is basically a kind of software which is available with a set of instruments like anemometer and barometer to determine weather conditions.

• Professional Weather Station

This professional weather station is very similar to weather software used in homes and small offices. The best thing about the professional weather station is that accurate information is provided by it. It comes with some additional instruments for measuring other kinds of information related to moisture in soil, dew, ultraviolet rays, temperature of water and soil, etc.

• Digital Weather Stations

Technology is improving by the day. Accordingly there has been development in the making of weather stations. The latest invention is the digital weather station. In fact they are technology of the next generation when it comes to getting updates on weather. Information availed from the digital weather stations is very similar to updates on weather monitored by meteorologists. Information obtained from the digital weather station is more detailed as well and comes along with certain alarms for setting warnings on storm signals etc.

When you have weather stations of these types you no longer have to rely on news updates or the internet. Any unanticipated changes in weather can thus be brought to notice and you will be in a position to plan out activities for any day in a better way.

Instruments Used For Measuring Weather Conditions

The following instruments are used typically at the weather stations.

• Anemometer - It is used for measuring the speed of wind

• Thermometer - It is used for measuring surface temperature of the sea and air

• Hygrometer - It is used to measure humidity

• Rain Gauge - It is used for measuring precipitation of liquid or a particular time period

• Barometer - It is used for measuring pressure of the atmosphere

• Buoys and ships are used for measuring conditions of weather at sea. Wave period, height of the waves and the temperature of the sea surface are some of the meteorological quantities measured to find out weather conditions at sea.

The North Atlantic Treaty Organization

NATO

NATO is the abbreviated form of North Atlantic Treaty Organization. Canada, Turkey, the United States and many members of the North Atlantic Ocean totalling to 28 countries came into an alliance to form the NATO.

When Was NATO Established

It was after the Second World War that NATO was established as a part of the UN or the United Nations. It was established on April 4, 1949 under the North Atlantic Treaty. Headquarters of NATO are located in Belgium at Brussels.

The treaty has been a countermeasure by major western nations against the aggression threat during the Cold War by the Soviet Union. The main aim was to safeguard freedom of the community of the North Atlantic. Social, political and economic cooperation was also encouraged by the treaty. IN 1952, NATO was centralized and reorganized and has undergone a number of reorganizations subsequently.

Aims And Objectives Of NATO

Main purpose of NATO is protecting the freedom of the member countries. As per the definition in the Treaty’s Article number 5, even if one of the member countries is attacked then it will be considered that all the nations have been attacked.

Defending the member countries against troops present in the pro-communist nations, in large numbers was the main purpose of NATO. European Union was made possible as even United States wanted to make its presence felt in Europe for fostering political union and preventing a resurgence of nationalism in the military.

A partial true fact is that it was founded in response to a Soviet Union threat. Actually the alliance was created as part of an effort for serving three different purposes including, deterring expansionism of the Soviet Union, to encourage political integration in Europe and to forbid revival of European nationalist militarism through North America’s strong presence on the continent.

In the past few years, the purpose of this organization has gradually expanded to defence against cyber attacks, terrorism and use of weapons for mass destruction. The organization has had to keep redefining focus as a political and military alliance for keeping up the changing face of war right from the time the Second World War came into inception.

Members Of The NATO

The twenty eight members countries of NATO are the United States, Albania, United Kingdom, Belgium, Turkey, Bulgaria, Spain, Canada, Slovenia, Croatia, Slovakia, Czech Republic, Romania, Denmark, Portugal, Estonia, Poland, France, Norway, Germany, Netherlands, Greece, Luxemburg, Hungary, Lithuania, Iceland, Latvia and Italy. An ambassador represents each of the member countries which receive support of the officials serving on different committees of the NATO.

For building new partnerships, new members were accepted by NATO. Accordingly the establishment of NATO-Russia Council took place in 2002 to enable Russia and member states of NATO to work as equal partners on issues of common interest related to security. The Istanbul Cooperation was launched by the Alliance in 2004, to offer practical security on bilateral cooperation to nations in the broader region of the Middle East. Rounds of enlargement took place subsequently thus bringing in more allies into the fold like Albania and Croatia in 2009 and Lithuania, Romania, Estonia, Bulgaria, Latvia, Slovenia and Slovakia in the year 2004.

Functions Of NATO

For discussing the business of NATO, the head of Defence or the Prime Minister/ President of Foreign Affairs, keeps meeting from time to time. The North Atlantic Council is the highest organ or NATO. This council may meet the permanent representatives, minister or government heads at various levels. Military and civilian agencies are supervised by the Council which also determines policies for the same. The council is chaired by the secretary general of NATO. The Military Committee comes under the Council and keeps meeting at the permanent representative or the chiefs of staff level.

From 1966 to 1995, France withdrew from the Military Committee but continued to remain a Council member and till 2009 did not return to the military command of NATO. It is in two commands that division of NATO has taken place. SACEUR or the Supreme Allied Commander Europe heads the Allied Command Operations and directs NATO for controlling air, sea and land operations and in war times. The other command is the Allied Command Transformation which has its headquarters at Norfolk. The main responsibility of this command is to make recommendations on transformation of the organization‘s forces in a strategic manner in the era, post the Cold War.

Advancing goals related to foreign policies and global interests is one of the core functions of NATO. In fact new realities are being faced by this organization.

Recent Issues Handled By NATO

Massive crisis are being faced in the economy by Europe and United States. This has led to reduction in internal investment and weakening of economic performance since many years. This has called for the need of NATO’s assistance to advance and support projection of global power.

Fighting against terrorism is one of the main points on the agenda of NATO. It has been made clear by the Lisbon Summit Declaration and the Strategic Concept that a serious and real threat has been posed on the safety and security of the Alliance and its members by terrorism. This scourge is being fought by NATO, collectively and individually, in accordance with the UN Chapter principles and the international law.

New policy guidelines have been put into place for the purpose of Alliance work to counter terrorism and focus majorly on improving enhanced engagement, adequate capabilities and awareness of threat, with countries in partnership and other factors at international level.

One of the dominant issues that face the Alliance is Afghanistan. Efforts are being taken to stabilize the situation in Afghanistan. If this is not done then NATO will have to face repercussions besides which its image could get tarnished. So to find a way towards stabilizing Afghanistan and handling the issue is very critical for NATO.

Efforts are being taken by the United States for preventing emergence of arrangements of European only security which could lead to the undermining of NATO. Preserving this organization as the main instrument of security and defence is of fundamental importance as well as an important channel for United States influence and security affair participation in Europe.

DISEC – Disarmament and International Security Committee

DISEC

A committee was required by the United Nations for resolving a number of security issues and political tensions resulting from the Second World War.

When Was DISEC Founded

After the World War II, a lot of weapons that were conventional were being used for destruction on a mass scale. The committee initiated as two different committees namely the Atomic Energy Commission and the Commission for Conventional Armaments. DISEC – Disarmament and International Security Committee was founded when the United Nations was created. It is the United Nation’s first general assembly.

The committee of DISEC is the one of the General Assembly’s main committees. The main organ of the United Nations is the General Assembly which consists of all United Nation’s 192 members. Main purpose of the General Assembly is creating and maintaining cooperation and peace globally between states related to educational, security, cultural, health, social and economic concerns. The DISEC issues resolutions thus focusing on the establishment of disarmament and security at a global level.

Aims And Objectives Of DISEC

The United Nations established the DISEC committee with the purpose of serving as a forum for all representatives of member countries of the United Nations so that they are able to debate on various issues related to security and disarmament in an environment where equality prevails.

Relevant measures are taken by the committee to reduce or prevent conflicts and hostilities between various countries on matters that the Security Council of the United Nations does not discuss. Fostering security, disarmament and peace all over the globe, is the main purpose and role of DISEC.

It has been stated in the United Nations Charter that the committee of DISEC has to consider the general principles related to cooperation for maintaining security and peace at an international level. However, DISEC does not possess power for authorized intervention of arms or imposing sanction, unlike the Security Council of the United Nations.

As far as recent issues related to the recent security and disarmament sphere is concerned, the DISEC proves to be the first level for the purpose of discussing those issues. Thus it is able to provide greater freedom to various states for the purpose of developing their positions fully and also to set up directions in a systematic manner. For making resolutions of the General Assembly, the resolutions of DISEC function as a constitutive basis and raw material for resolutions of the General Assembly. Resolutions are submitted to the Security Council or the Secretariat, in the form of recommendations.

Members Of The DISEC

All the United Nation’s member states form the committee for DISEC. Each of the member states has one vote. A simple vote is passed in the majority to pass the resolutions.

Members involved in consultations of the DISEC Committee are provided with the most unique opportunities for participating actively in contributing to better understanding and formulating agenda for global security, besides providing solutions and recommendations to different forms of disarmament, conflicts within countries and other matters related to security policies.

Delegates from Sudan, Afghanistan, France, Benin, Egypt, USA, Chile, Hungary, Italy, Ukraine, Togo, Russian, Israel, Japan, China, Spain, Greece, Nigeria, Herzegovina and Bosnia, India, Syrian Arab Republic, United Kingdom of Great Britain, Turkey, Peru, Cuba, Northern Island, Pakistan, Central African Republic, Democratic Republic of Congo, Burundi, Gambia, Azerbaijan, Canada, Thailand, Algeria, Austria, Switzerland, Australia, Djibouti, Mexico, Somalia, Poland, Jamaica, Nepal, Bhutan, Lisbon, Iraq and Singapore are members of the DISEC committee.

Functions Of The DISEC

There are 193 member countries of the United Nations that have a voice and vote to the DISEC. Every year the committee meets for the purpose of discussing different issues that come under its mandate. In the past, recommendations have been sent to the UN Secretariat and the UNSC by DISEC, but by itself DISEC is not able to impose any kind of sanction, pass any kind of binding resolution or authorize the intervention of arms. Accordingly as far as global peace is concerned, a considerable role is being played by DISEC.

Recent Global Crisis Handled By DISEC

Foreign military bases have been built over a mass network by certain nations over the last century. These nations have rulers who are dangerous and ruthless and are a threat to world peace. Facilities provided by these rogue rulers are being used for undermining stability at international level, perpetuating conflicts and weapon proliferation. These military bases are integral to a number of wars that have been fought during the past few decades thus causing environmental and social issues on the local level. DISEC delegates address the social, political and economic aspects of various issues and develop a suitable framework which helps in maintaining peace over the world and at the same time render ineffective these foreign military bases and their negative consequences.

DISEC has focused on some of the issues relating to nuclear proliferation, trading of small arm, the Arctic Circle security and cyber-security, since the past few years. Some of the other recent crisis handled by DISEC is disputes of territories and resources underwater. Natural resources over the world are depleting and ice caps are melting. Accordingly many of the nations have begun venturing deep into the ocean and further away from coasts in the effort to obtain raw materials. Also showing up are tensions in many areas including South China Sea which increases the need for a proper framework to use, discover and develop resources under the water. Accordingly the morality and legality of establishing military bases on the offshore have been considered by DISEC. Economic, social and political problems are created at the established foreign military bases. A framework is created by DISEC for closing, operating and establishing of foreign military bases. The DISEC committee has been a stimulating and engaging
one for all in concern.

The committee was termed as the Political and Security Committee before 1970 and had a focus mainly on political issues. However as of now the focus is on eradication and reduction of biological, conventional, chemical and nuclear weapons which threaten peace and security the globe over. More focus is being laid on terrorist threats, outer space issues, accessibility of weapons by terrorists for mass destruction and technological us for breaching security of countries.

The United Nations

The United Nations

The League of Nations having 58 members was founded in 1919 and was considered an international organization, much before the UN or the United Nations was planned. It was responsible mainly for ensuring cooperation, security and peace between different countries across the world. It was a successful organization. However success of this organization waned as Japan, Italy and Germany, which were the Axis Powers gained influence which in turn led to the beginning of the World War II in the year 1939. To state the cooperation of the Allies including the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, the United States, Great Britain and other countries during the Second World War, an official declaration was made. Until the year 1945, especially at the time when drafting of the United Nations Charter took place in San Francisco, California, at the UN Conference, the United Nations, was not founded officially. Many of the non-governmental organizations and fifty nations attended the Conference and signed the United Nations
charter.

When Was The United Nations Founded

The United Nations is basically an organization at an international level. Headquarters of the United Nations are located in New York City. Franklin D. Roosevelt, President of United States and Winston Churchill, coined the name, ‘United Nations’. During the Second World War, on 1st January 1942 this name was used by the United Nations in the Declaration. A pledge was taken by twenty six countries that their governments would continue their fight against the Axis Powers.

The United Nations Charter was ratified by the United States, China, United Kingdom, the Soviet Union, France and other signatories in majority and on 24th October 1945, the United Nations came into existence officially. Each year, the United Nations celebrates the United Nations Day on 24th October.

Aims And Objectives Of The United Nations

• The United Nations has been exclusively designed for the purpose of enforcing laws at international level, social progress, freedom, justice, security, development in the economy and human rights for all people living in the member states and thus making them easier for various nations across the world.

• In the United Nations Charter, a number of principles of the UN have been enshrined, mainly the affirmation of rights of humans, saving the future generations from unrest and war and ensuring that all people enjoy equal rights.

How Does The United Nations Function

The United Nations has been divided in five different branches. The UN General Assembly is one of the branches. This is the main representative and decision making body in the United Nations. Main responsibility of this assembly is to uphold the principles of the United Nations through its recommendations and policies. It comprises member states. From the member states, a president is elected who heads the United Nations. Each year from September to December, the member states meet the UN President.

The International Court of Justice is the other branch of the United Nations which is located in the Netherlands at The Hague. It takes up the responsibility of UN judicial matters.

The United Nations also has another branch, which is the UN Security Council. This council comprises of 10 rotating members and 5 permanent members. Of all the branches, this is one of the most powerful. If in case the given mandates are not complied with, the UN Security Council has the power for authorizing the deployment of troops of the UN member states. Besides this, it has the power of enforcing penalties on other nations. During conflicts it also has the power to mandate a ceasefire.

The other branch is the Economic and Social Council which helps the General Assembly to promote social and economic development besides maintaining cooperation between the member states.

The Secretariat is also a branch of the United Nations which the Secretary General heads. It is mainly responsible for providing information, studies and other data whenever it is required by other branches of the UN for their meetings.

Who Are The Members Of The United Nations

The members of the United Nations are fully independent and recognized states. Outlines have been provided in the UN Charter that, for becoming a UN member, it is necessary for the state to accept all obligations as well as peace outlined in the Charter. For carrying out any action, they should be very willing to satisfy those particular obligations. First a recommendation is made by the Security Council after which the General Assembly carries out the final decision on whether the member should be admitted to the UN or not.

Recent Crisis Handled By The United Nations

The primary function of the UN is maintaining security and peace for all the member states. It has forces for maintaining peace which are supplied to it by the member states, even if it does not maintain an army of its own. Peacekeepers are sent to enforce a ceasefire to regions where an armed conflict has taken place. The Nobel Peace Prize was won by the peacekeeping force, for its actions, in the year 1988.

Millennium Development Goals have been established by the United Nations for the future. A number of international organizations and many of the UN member states have been in agreement that they would achieve goals related to reducing infant mortality, poverty reduction, fighting epidemics and diseases and in the process develop a global partnership by the year 2015, in terms of global development. A number of goals pertaining to the agreement have been achieved by some member states while there are others who have to yet achieve the goals. Over the years, the UN has attained success for sure. The goals are expected to truly realize in the near future.

The United Nations has also provided warnings on the food crisis looming all over the world during the year 2013. Grain reserves the globe over have critically hit very low levels. Climatic conditions are no longer reliable besides heat waves are adversely affecting growth of crops. Grain reserves have been eroded due to harvests failing in Ukraine, United States and many other countries, the UN warns.

Defining a Mixed Economy

What Is A Mixed Economy

The characteristics of both socialism as well as capitalism are reflected in a mixed economy. In fact it includes both, government and private control. It is also termed as a marriage or a golden path, between socialism and capitalism. There is freedom in the economy along with market regulation by the government in the mixed economy. In the national economy the weakness and strength of each company could vary much between nations. Economies in Cuba and America have been termed as mixed economies.

Mixed Economy – Explained

Both government control and free enterprise exist in a mixed economy. The government even adopts a monopoly in certain mixed economy areas. Both sectors are basically partners that work in the development process of the country. It is only when both the sectors cooperate that the mixed economy system works efficiently.

A mixed economy is seen prevailing in a number of developed nations. With a mix of two different philosophies in the economy, the country faces a number of consequences which include detrimental, neutral or beneficial consequences. Dual economy is the other term used for a mixed economy.

Industries are owned privately for reasons that include efficiency in the economy, individual freedom and the incentive to be productive and innovative in a competitive market. The government on its part addresses concerns like protection of the environment, maintaining proper standards required for the purpose of employment and as well as competition. It has been that ownership of state, centralized planning in the economy in varying degrees, ownership of state of particular production means for the purpose of meeting social or national objectives are also included in some of the mixed economies.

People of different types of political persuasions including the Christian democrats, social democrats or typically the centre-right and the centre-left support a mixed economy. In fact this economy is viewed a compromise between the laissez-faire capitalism and socialism. More than one type of economic system is incorporated in a mixed economy. Both state owned and private owned enterprises are contained in this economy. The disadvantages of both the planned economic system and market economic system are overcome in a mixed economy.

Features Of A Mixed Economy

• The government monitors forces prevailing in the market.

• Private and government individuals own the resources. In other words both the private and public sector, coexist with each other.

• The areas and roles of both the private and public sectors are defined well.

• There is no rivalry between the private and public sector.

• People are free to select a desired occupation and also have the freedom of consumption in a mixed economy. A private production technique is chosen by the private entrepreneurs.

What Are The Advantages Of A Mixed Economy

• Inequality of income is lesser in a mixed economy since an important role of regulation is played by the government.

• The government carries out an analysis of cost versus benefit thus help to reduce the social costs of activities related to business.

• Consumers and producers have the sovereignty to select what has to be produced and consumed. However the government possesses the right to stop the production of services and goods that are harmful.

What Are The Disadvantages Of A Mixed Economy

It has been seen that the line between the private and public sectors is not very clear, or gets blurred as from time to time, it shifts one way or another. In the longer run the mixed economy gradually evolves in the direction where the government has greater control while freedom of individuals becomes lesser. It is conceded by a lot of people that somewhere a line between both the sectors, needs to be drawn. However as a whole it is tough for the society to determine where that point is. Hence in a mixed economy the process is evolutionary.

An Example To Explain A Mixed Economy

One of the most prominent examples of a mixed economy is the United States economy. In this economy both, government regulation and private enterprise, form an integral part. Rights are reserved by businesses, to deny, employ employment or incorporate whoever they may wish, provided no illegal practices for employment and discrimination are engaged. Production means are owned privately and private citizen can invest, sell or purchase as per their choice. In America, a strong presence of regulation by the government has been felt. This is because it is felt that the government is able to provide some of the services better as compared to the private enterprises.

It has been seen that stronger emphasis is laid in many of the countries on freedom of individuals etc. however it has been accepted generally that services like repairing and constructing highways, national defence, maintaining vital records of citizens like birth and death certificates are performed best by government control only.

Role Of The Government In A Mixed Economy

• Promoting industries in regions that are underdeveloped or backward and where the inducement for making investments is low.

• Promotion of certain basic industries and economic infrastructure that have longer periods of gestation and huge investment are generally looked after by the government.

• Development of production industries related to the public sector.

• Services like libraries, postal services, railway lines, healthcare etc are run by the government in the mixed economy. Certain industries that are not run or owned by the government are influenced by in the form of regulations like controlling wages or in the form of taxes.

Role Of Private Sector In A Mixed Economy

Efforts made by the public sector have to be supplemented by the private sector. The public enterprises provide opportunities for investment which the private sector can take advantage of. While the public sector works according to a definite plan with the purpose of achieving particular objectives and aims, the private sector is not left alone to develop according to the way it wants. To help achieve aims and objectives of plans made, there are a number of incentives and controls provided for regulation of the private sector.

Capitalism

Understanding Capitalism

In the modern world one of the biggest tragedies is understanding capitalism in general in America. There was no capitalist system existing in America at the time it was being founded. In USA, development of modern capitalism didn’t take place till the Civil War ended, at the time when the Industrial revolution began to shape in America. The father of modern economics was Adam Smith. The bastion of capitalism was America, a nation that took centre stage all over the globe.

Setting Up Of An Ideological Foundation

A war for independence was launched by America in the year 1776. To develop a form of capitalist economy, an ideological foundation work was set by Adam Smith. ‘An Inquiry into the Nature and Causes of the Wealth of Nations’ was published by him in the year 1776. As of today the understanding of capitalism is quite different as compared to the teachings of the father of this economic ideology.

In a capitalist economy, it is important to understand how important the ownership of property is. Ownership of property is at the very core in a capitalist form of society. Productive property or property having certain economic value is termed as capital. If for example a TV set is used as a means to earn income, then it can be termed as capital, but by itself, the TV set used just for viewing cannot be termed as capital.

What Has Been Stated In The Wealth Of Nations By Adam Smith

So, the first thing to understand is that capitalism revolves around capital or property that is productive in nature. Anyone who gets money via capital ownership is termed as a capitalist. It is by owning the property that the capitalist is able to receive income. In other words, property ownership is the primary source of income. When property is purchased, used and sold, a capitalist can make income. Salaries are not earned by the capital and labour is not required for earning income. A person who invests in a professional manner or the owner of a factory can be termed as a capitalist.

Value Realization

Realization of value is ultimately attained on owning property in a capitalist system. The capitalist has complete right to all the property value. In a capitalist system, the owner of the property can also pay wages to a person who does work on the property hoping that the property value will increase with the work performed. In fact the capitalist could also offer a particular fee to a person performing work on the property and thus go public also. Only the wages are paid by the capitalist while the worker has no rights to the property value. Accordingly feature that defines capitalism include labour markets and wage labour.

Capitalist Class – A Minority Group

The kind of social system that people live in now is described as a capitalist system. Assumptions have been made that it had existed during a major part of human history. This government system is prevalent in most nations in the globe. In a capitalist society, people in a small minority have ownership of the transport system, technology, factories and land and have the means to produce and distribute goods. This minority group is referred to as the capitalist class. The working class is a group of people who have the ability to work and sell this ability for the sake of earning wages. Services and goods are produced by the working class and are sold with an aim of making profit. The capitalist class gains the profit since they are able to make more money by selling the goods at a higher price. The working class is exploited by the capitalist class, which lives off the profits earned. Some of the profits earned are then invested again so that more wealth is accumulated. In a capitalist society, there exist two classes of society, the capitalists and the workers. Division of classes is an essential feature of the capitalist system. To understand capitalism, only the two classes need to be discussed about.

The Motive Of Profit Making

The main motive in capitalism is to produce services and goods and then sell them at a profit. The purpose of satisfying needs of customers is not the main aim. A capitalist will always want to earn more, as compared to what had been invested.

Services and goods are produced in way that they can be sold at a profit only. The capitalist does not consider how much the consumer is willing to pay for the goods and services to satisfy their needs. Some of the goods may satisfy needs of humans but those who do not have money in sufficient amounts are not able to satisfy their needs. This is done so that capitalists are able to maintain their position and at the same time do not incur loss on investments. Besides this, they are also in competition with the rest of the capitalists due to which, profits earned are reinvested again. This helps in keeping the methods and means of production, up to date.

In a capitalist system Is The Market Economy Free

The main assumption is that capitalism is also a market economy that is free. It is possible not to have a free market in capitalism. This is demonstrated by the capitalist system prevailing now in Cuba, China and Russia. The societies in these economies are divided by class but are widely referred to as socialists. State capitalism has been followed in these nations. Production, purchasing, exchanging, selling, production of commodities and wages are within the purview of the state. But the state makes profits and the higher echelons get fat salaries. To protect economic interests, these countries especially Russia was ready to go for war too. The Soviet state thus controlled what was possible to produce or not to produce, targets were set for the purpose of production, and wage labour was exploited so that it could act as a functionary of capital. Such nations had nothing at all to do with socialism. Capitalism is supposed to be system of society that exists all over the world and most countries practice a
system of modified capitalism now.

In theory it is possible to have a free market economy which does not follow a capitalist system. In a free market economy the shopkeepers, artisans and farmers would be involved in the production of a particular product that could be exchanges via a monetary medium. In such a case there would be no division of class, no making profits but just producers who make goods independently and exchange those goods for the sake of mutual benefit. Whether or not such an economy existed, is a bit doubtful. A free market economy may have been followed in early North American colonial settlements probably. In a modern day society it is not considered viable to have a free market economy in capitalism.

Communism

Understanding Communism

One phrase that is able to crystallize what communism means is, ‘from each according to his ability, to each according to his need’. In a communist system, a classless society is created by abolishing any kind of ownership in private.

History Of Communism

Basic ideas on communism were embodied in a short book called The Communist Manifesto written by Friedrich Engels and Karl Marx in 1848. This book is being referred to by many of the communists and socialists even today for understanding economics and politics. Even if many of those who are not communists read this book, they are not in agreement with everything featured in it. According to Karl Marx, there needs to be a period of transition, if the society has to change into a communist way of life. The society would be governed by workers in such a society. A number of individuals and groups liked the ideas that Marx propounded.

Social Democracy was a socialist movement that took place worldwide during the start of the 20th century once people favoured the ideas of Karl Marx. A view was shared in different countries that workers had a lot in common with each other as compared to what each worker group has with the bosses in their own country. In Russia the temporary government got abolished in the October Revolution by the Bolsheviks group led by Leon Trotsky and Vladimir Lenin. After this the USSR – Union of Soviet Socialist Republics or the Soviet Union was established after the revolution in February against the Tsar.

First Ruler To Follow Communism

Right from the year 1917, at the time of the Bolshevik Revolution, this system of government has been a major theme in history. Ideology on communism was popularized mainly by Friedrich Engels and Karl Marx in the Communist Manifesto, their work in 1848. This work inspired the Bolshevik Party founder, Vladimir Ilyich Lenin. In Russia, he became the very first ruler to follow communism.

Ownership In A Communist System

In a communist country, all the people own all factories, land, goods etc. which indicates that all people share the goods available. According to this system, people located all over the world should own the farms, factories and tools that are required for the manufacture and production of food and goods. Due to this, poverty does not prevail. Besides this there is no lower class, middle class or upper class. In America, during the 1930s during the era of the Great Depression, the a large number of people joined the Communist Party as this system was very sympathetic towards the desires and the needs of the workers, instead of the bosses.

In practice, communism seems to be a bit different especially for those living in the twentieth century. As far as communism is concerned a proposition that was completely different was practiced by Chairman Mao, Stalin and Lenin. Communism of such kind only sets up a government of an authoritarian kind and the best of services and goods are received by people in government. It was for this reason that a lot of people in Russia vied for jobs in the government sector. One of the biggest reasons was not that they were communism fans, but that they got larger accommodation as part of perks. Members of the government begin rationalizing that since they are doing governing jobs for the people, they rightfully deserve to have what is best.

Focus Of Communism

In an economy where political communism is followed the ultimate goal is to focus on the aspect of production rather than arts, etc. It has been seen that in a communist regime, it is the arts sector that could suffer as seen in China for a number of years. Governments in a communist economy start becoming paranoid and insular leading to the formation of a secret police force that squashes any sign of revolution by the people. Man is unfortunately, greedy by nature. If humans were not greedy then the probability is that communism would be able to function well. It is however argued by a lot of people that no one would have the desire of having more, if everyone is provided the same. Time and again, this particular aspect has proved to be a fallacy. People will not want to excel at all since the main aim is to only work towards a total production quota with nothing more to work or goals to be achieved.

Communism At Its Extreme

In politics, communalism has been described as a way of thinking. In fact it is an idea of the way a society should be organized and work. It is basically socialism at its extreme. There shouldn’t be any states or social classes in this government system. It is in other words there is no ownership of private property in a communist form of society. Both money and the state cease to exist as the people have to work in order to get the things required by them for living.

Who Creates Dictatorship In A Communist Society

Power of the ruling class or the bourgeoisie, is eliminated in communism. The working class or the proletarian are the ones who create a dictatorship in the classless society. Even if this form of society is against individualism, the belief is that, whatever decisions are made, they should be beneficial to the collective population as a whole instead of just serving certain or some of the greedy people.

Who Takes Up Power Of The States

It was the belief of a number of socialists that in democratic elections, power of the state should be taken up by the socialists. Accordingly to win the elections, they put in effort to create socialist parties in their own nations. The others were of the thinking that states were created for maintaining capitalism and communists would not be allowed to take over power by the capitalists. Hence for creating a new state for workers a revolution or war would be needed. Some of the countries make claims that they are worker states but this is debated by a number of communists. Elections were held in many of the countries, however only candidates belonging to the communist party were allowed to contest the elections.

Symbol Of Communism

Communism is symbolized by the colour red all over the world. At times a five pointed star in red colour also depicts communism. In many countries the sickle and hammer are being used on flags as a sign for communism. To signify the entire communism philosophy, many of the communists used picture of well known communists in history including Mao Zedong, Lenin and Marx. The Internationale is the communism song used internationally. Words of the song are translated in different countries, but the music continues to remain the same at all places.

Gaza Strip politics

The Gaza Strip Politics

The Gaza Strip is located on the Mediterranean Sea’s eastern coast. It is an entity that is self governing and borders Israel on the north and east and Egypt on the south-western side. The Hamas have governed the Gaza Strip from the year 2007, de-facto. Hamas is a faction from Palestine which claims to be the legitimate representative of the Palestinian People and the Palestinian National Authority. In Ramallah, the government of Palestine has claimed the Gaza Strip which has gained recognition as part of the Palestine State, from the year 2012. The Palestine people living in the Gaza Strip are Sunni Muslims predominantly.

Israel And Settlements Establishment In The Region

From the period 1917 to 1948 the Gaza Strip was a part of the Palestine mandate of Great Britain from the League of Nations. It was under the rule of the Egyptians from 1949 up to the war in 1967 after the Armistice Agreement. For a brief period, November 1956 to March 1957, it was occupied by the Israelis. Then in the year 1948 there was a war between the Arabs and the Israelis which led to the influx of Arab refugees into Palestine. Due to this the population in this region almost tripled. However Egyptian citizenship was never given to the Palestinians due to which they remained stateless. After the war in 1967, the region was occupied by Israel and settlements began coming up at the Gaza Strip. However the Camp David Accords of 1978 promised autonomy for the region.

Palestinian Uprising

1987 saw the inception of the Intifada or the Palestinian uprising. The Gaza Strip became a major centre for a lot of violence and unrest in the political arena. Military curfews were imposed frequently by the troops of Israel for the main purpose of maintaining peace and order and quelling out violence. The two main chronic issues faced by the region were low wages and very high rate of unemployment. In the year 1991, the Persian Gulf War took place. Workers from Palestine in very large numbers fled back to their families which were located in the Gaza Strip. This in turn led to the creation of unemployment on a larger scale and dire crisis in the economy.

Palestine Police Force Deployed

An accord was called for between the PLO – the Palestine Liberation Organization and Israel to ensure that the self rule in the region remained limited. An agreement took place in May 1994, in which forces that were occupying Israel left a major part of the Gaza Strip and the police force from Palestine was employed in the region. The buffer zones that were present around the settlements of Israel and the frontier areas were retained by Israel. In the year 2000 the peace talks broke down and economy in the local areas was hurt with violence that resumed subsequently. As compared to the West Bank this Gaza Strip region experienced less fighting with the people of Israel. In response to attacks from Palestine, the army from Israel moved towards controlling some of the sections of the Gaza Strip and that too in an aggressive manner.

Attacks By Israelis Against Hamas

Attacks were also launched against the Hamas leaders by the Israelis which had a number of supporters in the Gaza Strip. A number of suicide attacks were also launched against the Israelis. The Hamas and Palestinian Authority forces which were dominated by the Palestine Liberation Organization also continued fighting in this region.

To withdraw troops and settlers from Israel from the Gaza Strip, a plan was announced by Sharon, the Prime Minister of Israel, in January 2004. The government adopted this plan subsequently as well. Accordingly in August 2005, evacuation of settlements took place and in the following month, forces from Israel began withdrawing. After the withdrawal, a threat was given from the Gaza Strip that it would descend into anarchic violence if the authorities of Palestine were not able to exert control over the region in an effective manner. Israel was attacked by the people of Gaza Strip and accordingly it suffered attacks from the Israelis in retaliation. In June 2005, this led to an open war after the Gaza Strip was invaded by a soldier from Israel and an Israeli soldier was captured by Hamas guerillas. In the months that followed, operations were mounted into the territory by Israel.

Conflict Between Al Fatah And Hamas

There continued a constant conflict between Al Fatah and Hamas due to which the economy in the Gaza Strip became quite dire. The Palestinian Authority too received restricted funds. Then, with the defeat of Al Fatah the fight between the Palestinians ended in June 2007. After this the Gaza Strip came under the rule of the Hamas. Intra Palestinian conflict continued to prevail in the region. Gradually the flow of goods was also restricted into the Gaza Strip. In January 2008, the Gaza Strip’s blockage was tightened by Israel in response to the rocket attacks that continued from the region. This led to a number of shortages and the Hamas then forced the Egyptian border open. Right from 2005 the border was kept closed for a number of days. The blockade was challenged by an aid convoy from Turkey in May 2010 and was boarded in a deadly raid by forces in Israel in international waters. All over the world, this raid was widely condemned. The blockade gained a lot of attention from the world over. Border crossing of Egypt was reopened subsequently. Blockade on importing goods was eased out by Israel.

Ceasefire And Reopening Of The Border

Establishment of ceasefire in June 2008 with Israel took place. The border was reopened partially. Cease fire was held and in November 2008 there was a fighting outbreak but the following month it was ended officially. An offensive was mounted by Israel against Hamas in the later part of December 2008 and ground operations took place in the month of January 2009. In the Gaza strip around 1300 people died out of which half of them were civilians. In the middle of January, ceasefire was declared separately by Hamas and Israel after which forces from Israel gradually withdrew. In the conflict thousands of buildings were destroyed and damaged.

A fact finding mission from the United States and human rights organizations from all over the world accused both the sides for war crimes. An attack across the borders took place after four years with sporadic mortar and rocket attacks and air strikes by Israelis, besides minor incursions across the border in November 2012.

Reasons for the hostility between Israel and Palestine

Reasons For Tension Between Israel And Palestine

There have been conflicts between the Arabs and Jews for around sixty years, dating back to the year 1948. As of now it is considered that the dehumanization process is over and is mutual distrust. It is the belief of many that relations between Palestinians and Israelis have become worse since the past few years as there is no contact on daily basis between them. Both are isolated parties and are flourishing in an unchallenged way with the Palestinian becoming a terrorist who is rather ruthless and the Israeli a soldier on rampage or a rabid settler.

Explosive Conflict

On this planet, there couldn’t be a situation in politics that is as explosive as the conflict between the Palestinian and the Israelis. However it has not been able to get coverage in a balanced way. Israel has been depicted by the Pro-Israeli groups and media as a victim who is innocent while Palestinians are termed as aggressors who are rather heartless and threaten civilians who are innocent. In fact the Israelis are portrayed badly by the Pro-Palestinian groups and media and in turn have their own cause glorified. In the media in the Western countries, it is rare to find balanced stories of the conflict between Palestine and Israel which is always highly charged.

Powerful Factions From Both Sides

In both sides there have been powerful factions who have played a crucial role in fostering a climate that has been highly tense. The powerful factions also support a cycle entrenched with violence and hatred. A large number of groups have helped the Palestinians and the Israelis to recognize the common interests and the humanity they shared. It has been seen that the desire to keep moving beyond the conflicts has been growing in way that it creates something new and thus getting the support of everyone involved.

Examination By Psychologists

The state of mind of the Israelis and the Palestinians that lead to actions that are so heinous, especially in Gaza have been examined by a number of psychologists. It has been reported and published in some of the newspapers in Israel about misconduct adopted by soldiers in Israel during the offensive in Gaza. When some of the soldiers from Israel were deployed in Gaza, they carried out some deeds that were completely loathsome. These heinous deeds included the murder of civilians from Palestine in cold blood.

One of the squad leaders was not even able to describe how much troubled he felt after seen the loathsome deed. He actually stated that the lives of the Palestinian civilians did not seem as important as the life of the soldiers. This kind of a tendency has been termed as dehumanization of pseudo-speciation, which is considered as, as old at the Bible. In fact these tendencies have enabled both the Jews as well as the Arabs to behave in a way that it would be almost impossible if the victims who suffered the loathsome acts were acknowledged to be human beings. It has been studied that if the conflict is more protracted then the chances of it occurring will also increase.

Sermons At Mosques

Many of the Israeli soldiers have given accounts about the sermons given in mosques during Fridays. The sermons state that they have descended from monkeys and pigs. In the narrative of the militant Islamists, the soldiers have been dehumanized completely. The dark side of the heart of the Israeli soldiers has been explored by a number of organizations.

While the soldiers are on duty on territories of Palestine, they have had to face a lot of brutal behaviour as well, on many occasions. There have been a lot of tales related to vandalism spread everywhere out of which in many cases civilians were killed without any reason. War stories have been consistent in Palestine and Israel. The situation is extremely difficult as it is considered that each and everyone is only an enemy and the notion is that every person can become a legitimate target.

Unprovoked Killings

One of the Gaza incidents reported is of a woman and her two kids being killed along with an old woman. If the person identified was a Palestinian, then he or she would be immediately killed, even if they did not pose a threat of any kind. In the recent years, it is believed that the rancor between the Palestinians and the Israelis had become much worse. No longer do the two sides keep day to day contact with each other.

Notorious Presentations In Television Programs

In some of the programs for children on television there has been a notorious presentation of animal characters in squeaky voices that foment so much of hatred towards Israel, that they are martyred in a very cruel manner by the Jewish people who are very vengeful. This is kind of climate is increasing the tension between the Palestinians and the Israelis. These attitudes have already been strongly formed and to have these attitudes changed, is simply difficult.

Despite this, there is mention that many of the indoctrination methods and shows on television in Gaza are completely superfluous. It is on the ground itself that most of the children in Palestine have this vengeful attitude developed. Many of the children in Gaza do not feel safe during the war times. Hence it is difficult for the children too, to perceive the Israelis as good.

Religion Has Not Played A Positive Role

To reduce the tensions between Palestine and Israel it has not been possible for organized religion to do much. In fact this has worsened the deadly situation thus increasing the wedges between the Jews and the Muslims and denying and ignoring that both are humans. In the Middle East, the key factor is religion, but it has not been able to play a positive role as required.

It is predicted that if the cycle of tension and violence will not end, the hatred between both will keep deepening, the conflict will keep grinding on and the death roll will climb higher and higher relentlessly. In fact, Israelis and Palestinians of the next generation will be more extremist and fundamentalist.

Herr Otto Von Bismarck

Germany Under Bismarck

Herr Otto Von Bismarck was a man with a unique personality and an iron image. In Germany’s unification he was considered as a crucial factor. He had diplomatic skills. He reigned as a chancellor of Germany and Prussia. He was a master where foreign policies were concerned. Bismarck had the ability to make the rest of the leaders and other powers appear pathetic by outwitting them all.

Bismarck’s Background

Bismarck was born into the Junker class political principles and ideas which he inherited. Bismarck‘s mother Wilhelmina came from a cultured and middle class background and passed on her love for literature and music to Bismarck. Bismarck did not like his mother too much, however he revered his father. He accepted the beliefs of nobility in which he was born into, as his very own. He had a lot of interest in reading and gradually gained mastery in a large number of fields of knowledge. He gained a monarchial, conservative and autocratic outlook in life, due to his family background. He became a great patriot in Prussia.

Education And Employment

It was in the Prussian Civil Service that he sought employment with his Junker education. He studied at the Spartan boarding school Plenum Academy in Berlin where physical and religious exercises mainly dominated. After that he learnt foreign languages at the high school, Gymnasium. He studied law at the University of Gottingen in 1832 which was a strange choice where he learnt German liberalism. Instead of attending lectures, he womanized, fought and drank. In the time that was left he took up German philosophy and liberal literature. He kept on changing universities as he did not find Liberalism appealing enough. He finished education at the University of Berlin in the year 1835.

His upbringing in Prussia conflicted with mob interference with authority in politics. So with opinions that were less liberal, he came back to Berlin and served as a sharpshooter in the military for one year compulsorily and entered into the Civil Service in Prussia. He began looking after his estates in 1839 after leaving the Civil Service, and married Johanna Von Puttkammer.

Restoring The German Bund

In 1847 he got his first break in politics when he was appointed to the United Diet in the place of a sick person. Here he rose as a Junker reactionary and defended monarchy. Bismarck was anti liberal and had a reactionary stance which helped him endear to the government of Prussia. For restoring the German Bund he got an appointment as representative of Prussia in 1851. For his reactionary stance in the United Diet, he was appointed, as part of a reward.

The anti Austrian view point was formed in the Bund during his time. At the Bund he emphasized attaining equal status for Austria and Prussia. In 1859, for his anti Austrian views he was side - lined by Regent William and was sent to Petersburg. For the Russian strength, he had great respect as an ambassador in the capital of Russia. Again in the year 1862 he became a ambassador in Paris. In other words he held a series of posts in the political front due to his attitudes and views.

Coming Back To Power

Bismarck came back to power due to crisis in the constitution. The Prussian King was William I who was also a soldier and felt convinced by the 1859 brief mobilization. A lot of inadequacies in the military in Prussia were revealed by him. William I, in collaboration with the General Staff Moltke and von Roon, the minister of war presented a number of proposals to the parliament in Prussia for increasing the army size and its reforms. Parliament was dominated by the Liberals who were determined on exercising at least one of the powers that is controlling the budget, which the 1849-1950 constitution had provided to the parliament.

Huge expenditure was involved it expanding the army which in turn would lead to an increase in taxation to the extent of 1.5 million pounds yearly. This saw an opposition from the liberals as extra tax would have to be paid. Accordingly a militia of the small middle class, called Landwehr was consolidated into the Junker which the army from Prussia had dominated. Proposed reforms of the army were rejected after which ensued, a class struggle. William I was on the way to abdication but decided to take Bismarck’s help. Appointing him would mean that there would be no compromise at all. Bismarck had been waiting for such a chance since long and so acted fast and William tore the document on abdication. Bismarck gave all the encouragement to William to collect taxes that existed and creation of new units.

Unifying Germany

In other words Bismarck, instead of pursuing ideology pursued mainly realistic goals and that too with any of method available. He never wished to have enemies for a long duration and with the achievement of a foreign policy, worked towards pacifying the liberals especially toward unifying Germany. Bismarck avoided using liberal methods but by following the iron and blood policy achieved the unification in Germany. William played his card finally after the army reforms were rejected by the Liberals, by appointing Bismarck as Prussia’s Minister-President.

Bismarck later on went on to manipulate the Schleswig Holstein War to Prussia’s advantage. Germans had populated Holstein and Schleswig. The Danish King had ruled them for centuries. A constitution was newly formed by Danes in 1863 with the intention to incorporate both Holstein and Schleswig into Denmark. All over Germany eruption of nationalist sentiments took place which for Bismarck was the very first opportunity. To support Augustenburg the German Prince, troops were sent to Holstein by the Confederation Diet. Bismarck sent Hanoverian and Saxon troops as he did not wish to be seen as an aggressor.

Even if it meant war with Denmark, Bismarck had the intentions of annexing both the duchies, which was clear from the very outset. He ensured that Denmark would get no help. Bismarck used his diplomatic skills and ensured that Denmark would get defeated and thus laid the foundations of the Austrian War, a war which he had predicted. Finally after the Danish war in 1864-1985, the Prussian Austrian war in 1866 and later the Franco Prussian war Bismarck finally unified Germany. His main aim was to unify states in Germany into a strong German Empire but at the same time wanted Prussia at its core.

Napoleon Bonaparte

France Under Napoleon Bonaparte

Napoleon is better known as Napoleon I. He was born in 1769 on August 15 in Ajaccio in the island of Corsica in the Mediterranean. He was born to Letiza Roamalino Bonaparte and a lawyer, Carlo Bonaparte. Out of the eight children he was the second child. His parents came from a minor Corsican noble family but they did not have much wealth. He died at the age of 51 years in 1821. Before Napoleon was born, France took over Corsica from Genoa city state in Italy. Later on in life he acquired a spelling in French as his last name. He began learning French in mainland France in a school and in 1785 graduated from a military academy in France. In the French army’s artillery regiment he became a second lieutenant.

Military Leadership

He was an emperor and military leader of France. In the early years of the nineteenth century he conquered many areas in Europe. During the 1789 to 1799 French Revolution, he rose through the military ranks. In a 1799 coup he attained political power in France and in 1804 he got himself crowned an emperor. He was a skilled strategist in the military, ambitious as well as shrewd. He waged a war against a number of coalitions of countries in Europe, successfully and gradually expanded the empire. In 1812, Russia invaded disastrously and after two years he abdicated the throne.

He was sent to exile to the Elba island. Napoleon undertook a campaign for hundred days and returned to power briefly in 1815. At the Battle of Waterloo, he face a crushing defeat and once again he abdicated and was sent to exile to the island of Saint Helena, at a remote destination. He died at the age of 51 years at the island of Saint Helena.

Reforming The French Society

Napoleon had brought about many improvements in the French society and France. He was a great reformer and is remembered for his victories in the military. He never wanted to abandon some of the best institutions that were destroyed in the Revolution by mistake, but at the same time he intended to retain all the changes that proved to be useful because of the revolution. It is important to look into the condition France was in, during and before Napoleon’s rule.

Changes In The Education System

Education was open only to the privileged classes before the revolution. Schools were mainly run by the church. Children learnt to give respect to religion and elders at the school. However after the revolution, certain changes were brought about in education. It was proclaimed that education was for all, for which proposals too were introduced during the revolution but no state run schools were set up for children. The main aim of bringing about changes in education was to encourage students to question and investigate. When Napoleon started ruling, the system of education in France began changing. The setting up of schools in four grades began. Technical schools, school that ran on military lines called the lycees, secondary and primary schools were set up. The importance of military values and obedience were stressed upon more at the schools. Primary education continued to remain the same as it was before the year 1789. In the secondary school, two subjects, math and science were given a lot of importance. Out of a 30 million population, thousands of students began attending schooling at the thirty six lycees.

Changes In Laws

Under the rule of King Louis there were no elections held and there was no Parliament or National Assembly. The king had absolute power and it was difficult to get him removed. A lot of laws were made by the king and people had no say in anything. Certain laws like maintaining inequality within various groups within the society and the Estates system was very out of date.

A lot of changes were brought about by the revolution. In France there was no single ruler and men or the voter elected the National Assembly. All the new laws were made by the Assembly. When Napoleon came to rule, a lot of changes were introduced. It was difficult to remove him when he became the Emperor of France. People elected candidates. Accordingly two National Assemblies were formed with the members, Napoleon chose from candidates elected by the people. Men were given right to vote however there were no elections held after 1804. The Assemblies made all the laws.

Napoleon’s Promotion As Brigadier General

It was in 1789 that the French Revolution began. The proclaimed republic of France and the monarchy was overthrown by the revolutionaries within just three years. Napoleon had taken leave from the military during the early years of the French Revolution and was in Corsica at home. With a political group which was related to pro-democracy, he sought affiliation with the Jacobins. He had a clash with Pasquale Paoli the nationalist governor of Corsica in 1793 after which the family had to flee to mainland France from their native island. It was then that Napoleon went back to his military duties in mainland France. He was associated with revolutionary Maximilien Robespierre’s brother Augustin Robespierre who was a Jacobin. Behind the period of violence and terror against enemies of the French Revolution, this Jacobin was a main force. It was during this time that in the army, Napoleon got promotion to the rank of a brigadier general.

The Reign of Napoleon I

France was involved in a number of conflicts or the so called Napoleonic wars with various coalitions of countries in Europe from 1803 to 1815. To raise funds for wars that would take place in future Napoleon sold the Louisiana Territory of France in Northern America for 15 million dollars to United States that was newly independent. This transaction further gained popularity as the Louisiana Purchase. At the Battle of Trafalgar, Napoleon’s fleet was wiped out by the British in October 1805.

At the Battle of Austerlitz he attained one of his biggest victories. The Russians and Austrians were defeated by the French. The Confederation of the Rhine and the Holy Roman Empire were dissolved as a result of the victory. Against trade with the British, Napoleon established a Continental system of port blockades in Europe so that he could wage economic warfare on a big scale with Britain in 1806. The Treaty of Tilsit a settlement for peace was signed in Prussia at Friedland by Alexander I after facing defeat from Napoleon.

At the battle of Wagram, the Austrians were defeated by the French in 1809 due to which Napoleon gained further. Napoleon, in three years, established a French aristocracy which had got eliminated during the French Revolution. He started handing out titles to members of the family and friends while his empire continued to expand across many of the regions across central and western continental Europe.

Aurangzeb’s Rule

The Rule Of Emperor Aurangzeb

As far as Mughal rule is concerned, many of the Mughal historical characters are seen as enlightened and great leaders while some of them have been considered as tyrants who were rather ruthless. One controversial Mughal ruler is the Mughal Emperor Aurangzeb Alamgir. He ruled the empire for 49 years from 1658 to 1707. He is seen as a ruthless and cruel emperor by the Sikhs and Hindus. This was because he imposed a regime that was religiously intolerant and he also restricted their freedom. As far as the Muslims are concerned, he is considered to be a sultan who was religious minded and extremely devoted. In a country dominated by Hindus, Aurangzeb has one of the Muslim leaders.

Aurangzeb’s Early Life And Background

In the 1500s during Babur’s reign, power in India was taken up by the Mughals. Later on after 150 years, Aurangzeb took over power when the Mughal Empire in India was at its pinnacle. Major part of the Indian subcontinent was controlled by the Mughals. All across the world, it was one of the wealthiest of empires.

It was in 1618 that Aurangzeb was born with in a cosmopolitan and powerful state. Shah Jahan, was his father was a legend who had constructed the beautiful Taj Mahal for his wife in Agra. Right from a young age, Aurangzeb was taught by the best of teachers and scholars. He was well versed with a number of aspects of sciences related to Islam, Hadith and the Quran. He read books with great enthusiasm and wrote in the language of his ancestors in Chagatai Turkic, Persian and Arabic. Aurangzeb was well trained in calligraphy and many of his works are still seen today.

Islamic Governance

Bringing true Islamic governance to the Mughal Empire was one of the main goals for Aurangzeb. All the previous Muslim emperors did not rule as per the laws of Islam. Many religious practices and beliefs that were non Islamic were practiced by Akbar, his great grandfather, while ruling the Mughal Empire and in his own personal life. However with Aurangzeb, the Islamic rule was on the basis of his strong religious convictions as well as his previous education.

He compiled the Islamic law book, called the Al-Fatawa al-Hindiya. Much before his father, Shah Jahan had died, he took over power. Aurangzeb considered many of his father’s actions as extravagant and wasteful and disregarded many of them, despite the fact he respected his father. He even criticized construction of the Taj Mahal by his father in his mother’s memory as he thought that building of a structure on any grave was against Islamic laws. He also opposed the veneration of the Sufi graves publicly as he was of the belief that a cult like practice was being gradually developed which was away from Islamic practices and beliefs.

Aurangzeb kept on insisting on having the Islamic law compiled into a book with codes so that people could follow it easily. Accordingly, to have such laws organized many scholars of Islam from the world of Muslims were brought together. A fiqh or a landmark text came into existence in the Hanafi School. In the rest of the Muslim world it was known at the Fatawa al-Hindiya, a guidebook and of the Hanafi law it is a compendium that is much respected. He enacted the Islamic law by using this guidebook and in the process ended corrupt practices in society like prostitution, gambling and alcoholism. He abolished taxes that did not fall in line with the Islamic law. Losses incurred in tax revenue were made up by living a simple life and avoiding all extravagant practices including festivities and music in the court on the birthday of the emperor.

Aurangzeb’s Relations With The Sikhs And The Hindus

It is argued by a number of academicians and historians that oppression and intolerance was Aurangzeb’s lasting legacy. He has been cited as a person who wanted to eliminate those who were non Muslims in the Mughal Empire and was also a destroyer of temples. Some of the temples were certainly destroyed but for political reasons rather than religious ones. Whatever had been his attitude towards the Sikhs and the Hindus, he was not discriminatory or prejudiced. In his court he had a lot of Hindus working as advisors and officials as compared to Akbar’s court. A lot of Sikhs and Hindus occupied positions in the military and the government. Aurangzeb was aware of the fact that desecration of temples was not permissible.

Places of worship like temples also had political significance and acted a property of the state and offices for political work. In other words the temple was more than just a place for religious purposes. This provides an explanation of why Aurangzeb had destroyed some of the temples but he did not follow any kind of indiscriminate policy for destroying Indian temples. He did this as part of an act that was motivated by politics only. Some of the Hindu officials were disloyal and as part of a political punishment, Aurangzeb took the decision of getting the temples desecrated. This act did not indicate any intolerance towards religion of the Hindus. Also he was not bigoted religiously to Islam as he took no efforts to double the number of mosques as well. His main effort was to be religious minded and strive hard towards ensuring an Islamic character which permeated through his various actions as a Mughal leader.

Fall Of The Mughal Empire During Aurangzeb’s Reign

He had a violent struggle for power while emerging as a successor. He got his father Shah Jahan imprisoned and also killed his brothers. The Mughal Empire started declining during his reign. He could not prevent the fall of the Empire even if he remained extremely devoted to his duties. Major section of the public opposed his policies. There was rebellion in large parts of the Mughal Empire. He did not prove to be a successful ruler even if he maintained high moral standards.

It was just on the basis of rule and religious tolerance that the Mughal Empire was built by him. The fatal mistake he did was to impose his beliefs and ideas on people with force which damaged the empire to an irreparable extent. He saw the empire getting destroyed before him. Even after urging his sons to undo the mistakes he had done, he was ignored and the Mughal Empire could not be restored. When he died in 1707 he was buried in Daulatabad in a simple tomb.

Russia during WWI

When the world was moving towards industrialisation, Russia was not keeping pace as the rest of the world. The internal politics of Russia was in a crisis as there were many changes happening. It was not just industrial development across the world but new powers centres, new leaders were emerging very fast. Russia was going in for a political change that was to be the biggest change and which was more lasting affecting many other countries in the world. Monarchy came to an end and Socialism was becoming the way of life. Tsar Nicholas II was repressing the changes happening in the country. Russia also declared war with Japan in 1904. It also joined the Britain and France to fight Germany and Austria but they were not at all prepared for the war and this led to collapse of the Empire.

Russia at the beginning of the 20th century

The industrial development in Russia during 1890s created a large number of urban middle class and this led to dynamic political changes. Unlike other countries, foreigners and state owned most of the industries. Therefore Russian working class was more powerful than the bourgeoisie. The Russian working class formed political parties and they were more political powerful than the nobles and wealthy people of Russia. The Russo-Japanese war that was waged between Feb 1904 and September 1905 gave an impetus to many political movements amongst all classes and nationalities who were living in Russia. Georgiy Gapon , a radical priest led a mass procession of workers to give a petition for the Tsar. Though the procession was peaceful it was suppressed with violence and what followed on January 9th 1905 is always known as ‘Bloody Sunday’, as there were spates of violence and vandalism, assassination of government officials, mutinies in the navy and more. It spread from Moscow to many other cities. Late 1905 Nicholas the Tsar agreed to the October Manifesto which promised a change in the political order and liberties for the citizens. Trade unions and people were allowed to strike as an exhibition of their protest. However police monitored these trade unions and had the right to close unions which were involved in illegal political activities. Press was given a lot of freedom.

Involvement in WWI

Russia entered into an alliance with Britain and France forming the Triple Entente. The main interest of Russia was in Serbia. Austria-Hungary also had their interests in Serbia, so Russia was their enemy. When a Serbian killed Archduke Ferdinand Serbia was forced to sign an agreement. Serbia agreed to most of the clauses except the one where it said the troops of Austria-Hungary would be stationed in Serbia. Russia supported Serbia in this and did not agree to the stationing of troops. War broke out and all the alliances formed earlier came into force. Russia fought on the side of Britain and France against Germany and Austria-Hungary.

In the war, Russia’s offensives into East Prussia brought the German troops from the western side helping the Belgians, French and British. Russia had two invading armies and one of it was defeated at the Battle of Tannenberg. Meanwhile it turned back an attack from Austria and moved into eastern Galicia. Fighting in winter was difficult for Germany. But in the spring of 1915 Germany gave a stiff fight and retaliated with full force and sent Russia out of Galicia and Poland. Once again in 1916 Germany had to drop the fight with France to meet the Russian attack on Austria-Hungary. On October 26, 1917 Soviet government issued a decree of peace that wanted negotiations and not war. On March 3rd 1918, the Treaty of Brest- Litovsk was signed with Germany ending the aggression between the two countries.

Political developments: Domestic
Anti establishments got together and organized into parties. The industrialists, who were capitalists, and the rich, wanted social reforms. They were in support of a constitutional monarch and they founded the Kadets which was popularly known as Constitutional Democratic Party in the year 1905. Radical factions in the nation had their own parties. There were widespread revolts and the Tsar could not keep it under control. He finally promised an elected parliament, the Duma, and then the revolts subsided. In 1906 this Duma was dissolved and he appointed Peter Stolypin to bring in reforms. In June 1907 the second Duma was also dissolved and new electoral law was promulgated. The second gave a lot of importance to nobility crushing the other classes. Again there was a political and a third Duma was elected in the autumn of 1907 where Ocotbrists was established.

 

Even the third Duma had many quarrels over many issues. Some of them were the composition of the naval staff, reform of the peasant court system, worker’s insurance organization. The Duma was more conservative than the Government in these issues. In 1911 Stolypin was assassinated by Dmitry Bogrov. The finance minister Vladimir Kokovstov took charge. He was supporter of the Tsar. But he could not control the powerful factions in the government.The fourth Duma was elected in 1912. The composition of the fourth Duma was similar to the third but some of the progressive members of the Octobrists moved out and joined the political centre. Historians believe that had the Tsar given up his autocratic rule Russia had a good chance of developing a constitutional government between 1905 and 1914.

 

Political developments: Foreign

• Russia was always interested in the affairs of Balkans
• It became a self proclaimed protector of Orthodox Christians in Serbia.
• In an effort to spread its influence in Far East the Balkan interest was put in abeyance.
• However the Far East ambitions did not prove fruitful as there was a war with Japan in 1904-1905 but was defeated.
• The defeat forced Russia to enter into deals with Japan and Britain.
• The logic of Russia and Japan uniting was to prevent USA from building a base in China.
• Russia entered into an alliance with Britain and France informally but did not antagonize Germany either.
• Even after these careful measures Russia and Austria-Hungary issues resumed and Serbia became the focus once again. This time Herzegovina and Bosnia also became an area of contest.
• Austria-Hungary annexed Herzegovina and Bosnia and the tense situation escalated.
• Austria-Hungary became the protector of Bulgaria which was a rival of Serbia.
• Russia made closer deals with Serbia acting as its patron.
• All these complex alliances were very unstable.
• When a Serbian assassinated the Archduke Franz Ferdinand an ultimatum was given to Serbia.
• Serbia accepted two but rejected the third which stated that Austrio-Hungary troops will be positioned in Serbia.
• This third ultimatum was rejected and war was declared war.
• Russia came to the support of Serbia.
• With an eye to win Serbia, Russia entered into war on the side of Britain and France with whom it had earlier formed an alliance.

 

Economic policies and changes

In the early 20th century agriculture was the largest sector of Russian economy. However it could adapt technology into agriculture. It produced half of the national income employing two thirds of Russian in this sector. With division of land grazing land reduced which further affected the livestock. Railway tracks were laid across farmlands, reducing the lands for grazing. The livestock and the crops could not with stand the severe winter of Russia. Along with these issues the population of Russia was growing adding to the woes. There was rationing of food. An average urban labourer ate 200 to 300 gms of food in a day. People living in the urban areas could buy only one pound of bread per day per adult. The ones who prospered the most during the war were the Kulaks who were the peasant land-owners. As people died in the war front land was being grabbed by the ones back home. By 1817 Kulaks owned 90% of the land. The price of food rose during the war. In 1916 the price of food went three times higher than the pay. This was in spite the bumper crop that Russia got in 1915-1916. To make the situation worse Kulaks hoarded the food surplus. When things were getting out of hand, Land Decree was enforced on October 26th 1917, wherein peasants took back their land from the Kulaks. By 1914 steel production in Russia equalled that of Austria-Hungary and France. Russia had some external debts which was high. Yet during the period 1907 to 1914 the economy recovered and grew.

 

Social policies and changes

During the period of Stolypin the biggest reform was the peasant reform program. Communes were broken up and private properties were being re-established. These reforms were in support of Tsar’s policies. Peasants were not willing to leave the safety of the communes so by 1914 only 10% of the communes had been dissolved. Agricultural problems led to the rise of the Bolsheviks party. Slowly Russia became a growing urban proletariat. The working class formed 80% of the population. Most of the peasant turned working class lived in intellectual darkness and could not read even their names. Superstitions were rampant and they believed in witches flying on broomsticks. They did not know about foreign countries and a tractor was looked at with amazement. Lenin said, “I come to abolish the village idiot.”

The village which was called ‘mir’ had a council of the heads of the household. They met informally to decide on communal matters. The landlord discussed matters with the village headman who also headed the council. He was the one who enlisted his people into the army during the wars. Land was commonly owned but there were some private plots. There were strict laws on sexual behaviour and those who transgressed it were punished brutally. Russia was a huge country and even when there was a government, the villages were independent and had their own rules and laws. Ideologies did not affect them; they were practical people who went about their every day work. The intelligentsia was not happy with the Tsar and wanted a change in the political system but the peasants were not too worried. Into such a scenario Bolsheviks led by Lenin could bring a drastic change later.

Consequences of WWI

After the loss at Tannenburg the soldiers was disgruntled the way the army was run. The Tsar Nicholas II himself took charge of the army and this boosted the morale of the army. However there was a gap in the governance. In his absence rumours about the Tsarina having an affair with Rasputin was rife. Rasputin was a mystic man who cured the ills of the Tsar. In his absence Rasputin took many things into his hands. The Tsarina was not a Russian and this coupled with her affair enraged the people. Rasputin was murdered in 1916 by the supporters of the Tsar. At the home front with more people being recruited for war, the economy of the country was coming down. The railway lines that were laid were used only to transport people to the front and not food supplies. Number of discontented people and number of starvation deaths were on the rise. Soon revolts broke out. The revolutionary groups soon got a lot of supporters because the army and police were concentrating on the war and did not stop them. Nicholas II was at the war front and the changes brought about a strain in the government which was too difficult to manage. Since nothing was done to bring a relief to the situation, the February Revolution broke out in the year 1917. The position of the Tsar was weak and he had to abdicate. Now it was up to the Duma to take control of the governance. Lenin, the ardent supporter of communism, who was in exile for a few years surfaced after the abdication of the Tsar. He lead the October Revolution of 1917 and from then started the regime of the Bolsheviks who were later known as communists.

 

 

 

Ancient Rome and India

Relations between Ancient Rome and India

Rome traded with India via Persia and Anatolia. Overland caravans were mainly used for trading spices and incense. Another route for trading via the Red Sea was later used after Augustus conquered Egypt during the period 30BCE and around the initial period of the CE – Common Era. It is in the records that a lot of gold and silver was traded for silk by politicians from Rome to pamper their wives.

Indian Regions Explored For Trade

The southern region of India besides Sri Lanka was most visited by traders from Greece and Rome. Trade was secured in a number of states in Tamil Nadu including Chera, Pandyan and Chola dynasties. Trading settlements were established in the ancient Tamil regions by the Roman-Greco world from the time of the Ptolemaic dynasty. This was before the beginning of the CE and trade continued to remain till the time the Western Roman Empire fell. The Ptolemaic and the Seleucid dynasties controlled networks of trade to India before Roman Egypt was established. A developed Indian trade network which was under the Parthian Empire influence was controlled by the Seleucid dynasty. The northern and western end of other routes for trading to India and Southern Arabia was controlled by the Greek Ptolemaic dynasty.

How Romans Took Over Indian Trade

Before the Romans got involved in trade with India, Greece had started exploiting opportunities for trade. During this time however, the volume of commerce between Greece and India could not be compared with trade between Rome and India. Direct sailings were not involved with trade over sea between Egypt and India, as mentioned by historians. Cargo was shipped to Aden. Aden benefitted since ships coming from Egypt or India wouldn’t go any further but up to Aden only and hence kept receiving cargoes from both the nations. When Roman Egypt was established, the Romans took over the trade and developed trade that had already existed by using the Red Sea Ports which the Ptolemaic dynasty had been using for developing trade with India.

Development Of Trading System With India

A strong trading system over the sea was established by India with other countries much before the Roman expansion. Ports in India increased till the Red Sea was opened by the Greeks and Romans. They had the all the geographical knowledge related to the seasonal monsoons prevalent in India. During the Common Eras’ first two centuries, the trade between Rome and Western India increased. Trade expanded due to the establishment of comparative peace during the time of Augustus in the Roman Empire. This allowed explorations of new kinds. Ancient literature and artifacts indicate with evidence that the commercial relationship had been quite significant between Rome and Western India.

In foreign literature too there has been frequent mention of India’s western coast known for its rocky sea beds, turbulent waves and severe currents in the sea. For preventing shipwrecks, many of the ships had made an attempt to sail outside the coast, however a lot of these ships got drawn towards the inside area of the gulf region. Those without much experience of the sea found making departure and entry of ships, rather dangerous due to this difficulty. Ship anchors would get cut off due to waves, ships would overturn causing a wreck ultimately.

Bet Dwarka an Important Place for Trading

Near the Gulf of Kachchh, at an island, Bet Dwarka, some of the stone anchors have been observed. This discovery is a good indicator about the Indo – Roman commerce and trade that took place during the early years of the Common Era. Bet Dwarka Island did not have favourable conditions, but despite this it indicates that it was important place for trading.

What Did Rome And India Trade In

It has been seen that right from Latin literature, serpents, tigers, elephants and rhinoceros from India were imported for use in circus show. In Rome circus shows were organized to prevent riots. A lot of sugar, herbs, sesame oil, spices, lyceum and pepper were imported by Rome. Pearls from India were a favourite amongst women in Rome. To colour white cloth, indigo was imported. For making furniture, ebony wood was also imported by the Roman Empire. To make medicine, different kinds of fruits including peach and Indian limes were also exported to Rome by India. During this time Roman gold in large amounts was received by Western India, in Indo-Roman trade.

Ship Building Development

Since the ships had to sail against western India’s narrow gulf, large boats of special kinds were used and demand for development of ships were made. Foreign vessels were guided towards safety to the harbour by cotymba and trappaga, which are very large types of ships. These ships had the capacity for long cruises along the coast. This kind of ship has been depicted in a number of seals in which parallel bands representing the ship’s beams, and single mast in the centre with a tripod shaped base are seen.

A number of Roman coins have also been discovered in explorations made in the recent times. Ship building development and close relations in trade have been well depicted on the Roman coins. The coins also indicate that during the first and second century, sea trade between India and Rome was quite stable. During Augustus’s time, land routes were mainly used so that the Indian embassies could reach Rome.

The Roman Ports

Myos Hormos, Berenice and Arsinoe were the main three ports that were involved with eastern trade. One of the earliest centres for trading was Arsinoe. However Berenice and Myos Hormos were easily accessible and hence they overshadowed Arsinoe quite soon. The present day Suez is basically Arsinoe. Goods received from trade with East Africa would end at any of the three ports. To divert trade as much as possible to Rome, the Romans took the effort to repair and clear out the silt from the canals along the Nile.

Demise Of Trade Between India And Rome

Demise of Indo-Roman trade however took place during the third century. The sea route between India and Rome got shut down. As a result of this, trade got reverted to the time period before the exploration and expansion of the Roman Empire. Roman trade was replaced by trade with Greece. It was due to the monsoons that trade got manipulated.