Weather and climate can be determined by the nearness to the sea. The sea brings in pleasant cool breeze in the summer heat, towards the land. Humidity level in the air at a particular location is also determined by the nearness of the sea. The weather report tells us how cold or hot it is or when it will snow or rain for example. Some of the regions across the world experience dangerous climatic conditions like fogs, floods, blizzards, tornados, etc and the weather provide report provides warnings so that people are able to pay special attention and take care. Of late the weather reports are becoming a bit sophisticated which provide particulates and pollen counts for those suffering from allergies and ultraviolet rays indicating whether or not a sunscreen is needed.
What Is Climate And Weather?
At any point of time, the state of atmosphere in a particular region is termed as weather which is specific. It is measured in terms like speed of wind, temperature, precipitation and pressure of air etc. On a very small scale it varies relatively. It could be raining a few miles away and dry in the area you stay for example. There can be variations in terms of temperature degrees, thunderstorms, clear skies, etc.
Climate has concerns about the very same things like weather and is about averages taken over a long term. Precipitation, temperature, rainfall and pressure are the measurements taken into consideration while determining climate but an average is taken over a long time period.
Oceans And Lands
The sun heats the oceans and the lands differently. As compared to water, the thermal capacity of land is smaller. The effects due to this can be quite interesting. Temperature on land rises with the same amount of heat received from the sun just as the oceans receive the solar heat. During the daytime even at the very same latitude, the land area becomes hotter as compared to water. Roughly, the solar energy received by land and the ocean remains the same at the same latitude but the water absorbs heat to a much higher extent. It is the thermal capacities that are different. Water becomes hotter with the same amount of solar energy. Air moves from a temperature at a higher level.
The winds in the local area move from the land towards the water since air moves from a higher temperature to a low pressure zone. Differences in temperatures are seen due to the greater cooling and heating up of land. The rate of heat lost or gained by an object will depend greatly upon the differences in temperatures. During the day time, the land gets heated more and hence the temperature differential is comparatively higher. It is for this reason that land cools rapidly. It takes a longer time for water to cool down due to lower temperature differential.
With each cycle during the night and day time the land has rapid cooling and heating cycles. The cycle is slower over a large water body. All the heat acquired by the water during a hot day in summer cannot be lost overnight. Hence on the following day in summer, the water gets slightly warmer, as compared to what it was in the previous morning. As there is progression in summer the larger water bodies begin to get warmer progressively. All through the hours during the night time, this heat is maintained while the land starts cooling down. Like land the oceans do not have troughs and diurnal peaks in their temperature. Instead in their temperature, the oceans have seasonal trough and peaks.
Effect On Weather Patterns
The weather patterns get affected significantly due to this. Moderation in temperature is the general direction of the weather effect. There is slow heating of water but the heat remains retained for a longer period as compared to land. The water cools down at a slower rate but the heat is retained for a longer period as compared to land. Climate of the land masses which are closer to the oceans have a moderate climate.
An area which is at the very same latitude as such a region at a distant location from a water body will be quite hot during the summer time. In winter it will be colder. Temperatures remain at a moderate rate due to the nearness towards the sea. Due to this the climate remains less hot during the summer time and during the winter time it is less cold. On temperatures there is a moderating effect even if there exists small water bodies like lakes. During summer time the lakes cool down the areas on the shore and during winter time, the lakes warm up the shore areas. Water covers approximately 2/3 of the earth’s surface which helps in regulating the temperature. If water bodies weren’t there then there would be extreme temperatures everywhere. Maritime climate is mild and pleasant.
In the mornings there are cool breezes to the shore from the lakes since local diurnal winds are produced locally by the smaller water bodies. Again in the evenings there are cool breezes from the shores to the lakes. All this is caused due to the land’s differential heating as compared to water at day time.
The air is dense and thick at places near the level of the sea as compared to places at higher elevations at the very same altitude. Even if mountains are located closer to the equator they remain covered with ice, due to the higher elevations. Weather gets affected a lot by the physical relief of a land area. Wind patterns and the weather get influenced by the variation in terrains.