World Wars Causes and Effects III

Causes practices and effects of wars-3:

Nature of Warfare

Warfare changed a lot during the 20th century. There were so many changes in the world in the field of technology and communication. This naturally affected warfare too. New arms and ammunitions were invented. What was used in one part of the world was known in other parts and it was replicated and sometimes even bettered. Warfare also changed. Sea and air warfare was introduced. With all this went away all laid out norms in a war. War was generally fought in the day, but in the 20th century, especially in the second half of the century, attacks were made during the night too. Civilians were not harmed during war but with weapons of mass destruction civilians were killed too.

Trench warfare was also introduced in the early 20th century. At the beginning of the 20th century soldiers on horseback, cavalry, soldiers walking, infantry, and weapons. Bayonets, light field guns and machine were used. Slowly the bayonets were dropped and machine guns came to be used more often especially by the infantry. Big field guns were developed during World War I. It was used to attack the trenches of the enemies. Once the trenches were destroyed it was easier to attack. However they were not always accurate as it fell away from the target, warning the enemies of an imminent attack. In 1916 British attacked the German trenches in Somme before the main offensive.

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Poisonous chlorine gas was used by the Germans against the British in the Second Battle of Ypres, April 1915. They also used mustard gas which burned, blinded and slowly killed the victim. Both sides feared this attack but it was countered with gas masks. Tanks were developed by British and in 1916 it was used against the Germans. It gave the attackers a psychological boost as it blasted its way through the enemy ranks. Tanks were initially slow and broke down easily. Continuous experimentation has now made tanks very fast and lethal. Tanks are still used n many wars.

In the Second World War machines decided on the outcome of the wars.  In the First World War sea warfare gained prominence and by the time it was the Second World War air warfare was used more often resulting in indiscriminate mass destruction. In sea fare the most effective were the U boats also known as submarines. To counter the submarines ships were installed with hydrophones which could detect submarines. Bomber planes and fighter planes were some models of planes used in air warfare. The nuclear weapon which was used in Japan was the most devastating weapon of the Second World War. The whole world was shocked at its extent of damage. At the end of the twentieth century there were only two kinds of warfare, conventional and nuclear. While there is no war with nuclear weapons wars with highly developed conventional weapons.

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