When people move from one place to another in the world, across countries for the sake of taking a semi permanent of permanent residence, it is termed as migration or human migration.
Reasons For Migration
There are a number of reasons why people migrate. Disadvantages and advantages of ‘moving’ versus ‘staying’ are first considered, besides a wide range of factors like cultural barriers, distance, terrain, costs of travelling, transportation and travel time by the people.
Factors For Migration
Two factors are mainly responsible for migration of people, out of which one is the ‘Push Factor’ and the other is the ‘Pull Factor’.
• Pull Factors
At times, people move to another place, since there is something desirable in that other location. If people find that there is freedom, better supply of food, better facilities, nicer climatic conditions, etc, then they move to another location.
• Push Factors
At times people have to leave a place due to difficulties faced due to floods, wars, shortage of food etc. These difficulties leave no choice for people, but to migrate.
Different Kinds Of Pull And Push Factors
People may get influenced by various kinds of pull and push factors at the same time. These include:
• Cultural factors like education, religious freedom etc.
• Economic factors like work etc.
• Political factors like war
• Environmental factors like natural disasters and climatic conditions
• Place utility factors like desirability to live in a particular region on the basis of its environmental, economic and social situation.
Different Types Of Migration
• Permanent Migration
When the human movement is of permanent nature, it is termed as permanent migration.
The movement can be involuntary migration or a voluntary migration. All through history of mankind, it has been seen that people have moved across the borders of nations, in the process of migration. The first group of humans from their origins in the eastern regions of Africa has moved to different current locations across the globe. It is on a range of scales, that migration or the movement of people occurs.
• Semi-Permanent Migration
Laborers working on farms keep making seasonal movements, in the case of semi-permanent migration.
• Inter-Regional Migration
It is called as inter-regional migration when the migration occurs between countries.
• Intra-Continental Migration
It is called intra-continental migration when people move between countries on one particular continent.
• External Migration
Moving to a new place of residence or home in a different continent, country or state is called external migration.
• Internal Migration
Moving to a new residence within a continent, country or state is internal migration.
• Rural To Urban Migration
Rural to urban migration is one of the migration patterns which is considered as most significant. In such a migration process, people move from the countryside or the rural area to the city or urban area, looking out for employment and residential opportunities etc.
When people move to another new nation or country, it is termed as immigration. It has been seen that a lot of pilgrims had immigrated or come to reside in America. A person who leaves one country to enter into another country for the sake of residential purposes, is called as an immigrant.
When people leave one country, to go to another nation or country, it is termed as emigration. It has been seen that from England a lot of pilgrims had emigrated or left the country to move to another country. The person who leaves one country to live in another country, is called an emigrant.
• Impelled Migration
Impelled migration is also termed as imposed or reluctant migration. At times the living conditions in a particular country are not very favorable due to religious persecution, political issues or warfare. In such a situation, people are not forced to leave the nation, but they make decision to leave the country, though reluctantly, which is called reluctant migration.
• Step Migration
At times, the migration takes place at a less extreme level or a series of shorter migrations from the place of origin of a person to a particular final destination. This migration is called step migration. The movement is made first from a farming area, to a village area, then to a town and then to a city finally.
• Return Migration
At times, people migrate to another area, and then for some reason or the other, return back to the place they resided originally. Such kind of a migration is termed as return migration or circular migration.
• Chain migration
In Chain migration, the migrations take place within a defined or specific group or people or within a family. The migration initiates with one member of the family who moves to another location for the sake of employment and then sends money to other members of the family and brings them to the new location. People move from a particular region to smaller towns and neighboring regions.
• Seasonal Migration
At certain times, people move for only a particular time period with response to climatic conditions or labor. Farm workers move to a destination for harvesting crops or for working during the off season in urban areas or cities so as to earn money.
People migrate in a group from a city, region or country to a particular destination which is called as migration stream.
Other Kinds Of Migration
• Transfer Of Population
At times, the government of a country forces people out of a particular region in a large group, which is termed as population transfer. The transfer of population is generally on the basis of religion or ethnicity. Such a transfer of people is also termed as forced or involuntary migration.
• Internally Displaced Person
IDP or Internally Displaced Person is one who has to leave her or his home region to another region due to environmental, social, political conditions etc that are not favorable at all. In such a migration, the person does not cross the boundaries of the country, but just move to another region in the country.
• Better Opportunities Nearby
If the opportunities available nearby are slightly better or equal then there is tendency of people to settle at locations near to the place of origin.
• Distance Decay
People prefer to settle at a location about which they have better knowledge as compared to locations that are farther away.
At times, due to fear of being persecuted for reasons like membership, religion, membership, race, political opinion or nationality etc, in a certain social group, a person leaves his or her country to reside outside his country. Such a person is termed as a refugee.