The main issues for highlighting the effects of climate change on biodiversity and ecosystem services are to understand the studies, flow and management of water. The key issues are the key land water system components like the wetlands, the consequences of land use changes on environment constitution and landscape limitations on biodiversity like the distribution and ecosystem services. The landscape scale is an absent connection between the studies and the effects on the level of species. Like all of us know that the most important ecosystem service in the planet is water and it provides services to a whole host of areas.
Consequences on Human beings
It caters to different sectors like industry, forestry, agriculture, tourism and more importantly as drinking water. The change in climate, hydrology and biogeochemistry have straight consequence to human beings and also to the many other ecosystem services. For understanding and construing climatic effects on biodiversity and ecosystem land and the use of land is the other important element. For providing biodiversity and ecosystem services natural and semi-natural habitats are also the important elements. The habitats in the landscape are connected through the movement of organisms and matter. Agriculture and forestry changes the landscape and species composition and this is a well known facts.
Human activities like hunting etc also will change the entire regulation procedures and composition of the ecosystems. The entire strength of these methods depends on the ecosystem productivity and it will change according to the climatic changes. The landscape constrains land use changes and processes and it will obstruct or lessen the biological process like spreading between habitats. This happens there is abandonment of agricultural lands or leaving the land idle for many years without doing any activities on it. Both plants and animals importantly have role in the geomorphic process functioning and it effects landscape change drastically.
Effect Human Beings and Animals
Studies says that major changes occur when there is difference in the type and distribution of vegetation across the hills slopes and this have considerably changed runoff and erosion processes. Small animal activities will also affect fluvial erosion and this has been proved in the studies done. The services of the landscapes are to provide and include things like providing biological variety, recycling nutrients, impounding carbon and providing supplying clean water etc. Landscapes are generally termed as open systems where materials, energy and organisms move into and out. The openness of the landscape depends on the phenomenon under consideration and the basis for defining the landscape boundary.
Watersheds form a natural landscape which is called closed landscape and energy and materials flow out from this landscape. From the point of view of the bird population the topographic boundaries have little ecological relevance. The erosion process and the rate of support it receives strongly influence the shape of the eroding landscapes. The strengthening of a mass above the base level increases the latent energy of the land. The resistance of rocks to erosion is also a major factor in the landscape development. Rock resistance increases to mechanical erosion and much more forces are required to wear away the substrate.