Nature and Development of Cold War:
Like some historians believe Cold War had started even before the end of ‘hot war’, World War II. Since two super powers were involved in the Cold War one could say that Cold War dominated world politics in the second half of the twentieth century, for fifty years. US and USSR had become nuclear military giants and this war was a struggle between the two. Great Britain and other European countries were on the side of US but as the years moved on US alone stood out as a powerful nation and the cold war was between the US and the USSR.
The Cold War became a standoff on nuclear weapons but it began with the ideological difference and two opposing views on life. One was a democratic view upheld by US and other western countries, where the people were given the freedom to choose their representative and where the economy was not controlled by the state. The other, upheld by USSR, was communism where life of the people was controlled by the state. Though there were high powered tensions between US and USSR, it never resulted in actual war; therefore it remained a cold war until 1990.
The cold war began when Soviet Union imposed their control over the weaker countries in Eastern Europe. Joseph Stalin was very ambitious and United States feared the spread of Communism to other countries in the West. And this fear was not unfounded. USSR began to help Cuba against America. Since Cuban leadership was very impressed with the communist ideas they quickly adapted it into their country. USSR also stationed its forces and placed nuclear missiles for a short period in 1962. So the tension only became stronger and after a mutual agreement USSR removed its missile base an US promised not to control Cuba.
The Truman Doctrine, signed on March 12th, 1947, and the Marshall Plan were mostly drafted to control the spread of communism. The Marshall Plan and other programmed weakened communist influence over Western Europe. The Soviets retaliated Berlin Blockade, which was the first major crisis of the Cold War. Soviet Union blocked all ways of entry into sectors of Berlin under the Western control. To counter it airlifting of necessities for the affected people went on for months. The Western countries actually succeeded in this and finally all the blocks were removed in May 1949. When Soviet Union tested its first atom bomb the cold war intensified. The cold war intensified the rift between South and North Korea. Communist North Korea was supported by USSR and South Korea was supported by USA. The Cold War between USSR and USA made its appearances in different parts of the world but fortunately nowhere did it take an ugly turn to become another world war.