Rates and patterns of population growth vary in different countries. Countries like USA and UK classified as MEDC’s (more economically developed countries) have low growth rates, whereas LEDC’s (lesser economically developed countries) have high growth rates. This is due the difference in the overall development of these nations.
Certain underdeveloped countries at stage one of the demographic transition model lack proper governmental policies pertinent to family planning. The economies of these nations lie in shambles. They don’t have abundant educational and medical facilities either. Due to the lack of schools or universities, the amount of people exposed to sex education is minimal. Most of the individuals living in such areas lack awareness about contraceptive techniques. All these factors contribute towards high birth and death rates. Inadequate medical facilities and infrastructure lowers the average life – expectancy of individuals and their quality of life. Most LEDC’s are at stage two or three of demographic transition model, where the rate of population growth keeps rising due to high birth rates. Death rates in these countries are declining due to improved and adequate healthcare and infrastructure.
MEDC’s on the other hand are either at stage 4 or 5 of the demographic transition model where growth rates are low and stable. For example, the population growth rate of UK is slow while Germany shows negative growth. Such nations have low birth and death rates due to an abundance of healthcare or medical facilities and adequate infrastructure that can cope with the needs of the population. Contraceptives are easily available in such regions too. High rates of literacy and awareness about contraception help curb growth rates. Efficient and strict policies regarding Planned Parenthood implemented by the government reduces the overall population growth rates in these countries.
Consequences of population growth:
- It adds diversity to any given society. Growth in population would mean growth in migration, people from different cultural backgrounds mingle and form a diverse society. High growth rates could also be attributed to pull factors of the region such as abundant employment opportunities and a higher quality of life. The participation rate or the proportion of workers in the population also increases.
- Adding to the population in general ensures the survival of the species.
- New generations add or contribute towards the overall development of the economy and culture of various countries.
- Population growth also enables nations to have stable economies and a vast supply labour which is essential for processes or industries involved in the primary, secondary and tertiary sectors of the economy.
- Areas or countries with dense populations are probably the most tolerant and accepting nations on the face of the earth. People living in such areas learn to live with each other regardless of their cultural differences. They have the ability of coping with the stress of interaction.
- Overpopulation leads to rapid depletion of natural resources such as food, water, fuel etc.
- It also causes an increase in pollution levels, which in turn contributes towards environmental problems such as global warming.
- Administrations indulge in land reclamation and deforestation to support huge populations. Destroying natural habitats results in the endangerment and extinction of various species of flora and fauna.
- Lack of space and efficient infrastructure makes living conditions undesirable and unhygienic.