Reasons for contrasting patterns of population decline and population growth
Causes for negative patterns associated with Population decline:
- Physical aspects of regions:Physical features like rugged or mountainous terrain are unsuitable for construction of houses, roads etc. The slope and height deters the development of settlements and transport facilities.
- Climatic conditions:Areas with extreme climatic conditions where the annual variation in temperature is high are not appropriate or suitable for high population densities. Hot regions like the Sahara desert and cold regions like Canada and Antarctica are some examples of areas with extreme temperatures and under-population.
- Environment:Places with abundant forests or jungles have a low population due to its inaccessibility. Construction and laying of transport links is difficult is such regions due to problems associated with cutting down and moving through dense forests. Example: Amazon forest in South America.
- Probability of disasters:Areas prone to natural calamities or disasters like floods, droughts and earthquakes cannot be occupied by growing populations due to the risk involved in settling there. Calamities cause a lot of damage to life and property.
- Lack of employment:Unstable economies and shortage of jobs are negative factors contributing to population decline. Insufficient employment has an adverse effect on the quality or standard of life of individuals and the overall economy development of an area.
- Poor quality and supply of utilities:Inadequacy or inaccessibility of public utilities like electricity, gas, water and communication (cell phone & internet network) does not facilitate the growth of the population in an area.
- Lack of efficient infrastructure:Lack of public facilities like schools, hospitals and transportation deters growth and makes that particular area or region undesirable to reside in.
- Shortage of natural resources:Insufficiency of resources like fuel natural gas and minerals have detrimental on the expansion of the general population of an area.
These causes are similar to ‘push’ factors which are the negative elements of an area adversely affecting the population.
Causes for positive patterns associated with population growth:
- Location of settlements or cities:Coastal areas are suitable for trade and primary occupations like fishing which contribute to the economic development of the region making it suitable for dense or concentrated populations.
- Terrain:Flat areas like plains and plateaus are favourable or appropriate for construction and development. Human populations can thrive in such areas due to the accessibility of the region.
- Water:Being one of the essentials or prerequisites for life, the presence abundant water supplies enables a lot of growth. Significant fresh water reserves support some of the largest densities of population in the world. Example: The Ganga in India.
- Resources:Sufficient resources like food, fuel, natural gas, etc. help in the development of settlements or cities and have a positive effect on the population. It helps in sustaining and supporting large populations.
- Agriculture:Areas in close proximity to fertile agricultural or cultivable land are suitable for growing populations. Agricultural land is beneficial for human populations as those areas produce a lot crops and increase food supplies.
- Efficient utilities and infrastructure:Regions with accessible utilities like electricity, water and communication services should have a positive effect on the economic and social growth of the population and the area itself.
- Employment:If the demands for employment are met, there is no reason why the population shouldn’t expand or growth. A huge supply of quality jobs is exactly what is required for the development of the economy and population.
- Abundant public facilities:Public facilities like schools, hospitals and transport should be efficient and accessible.
These elements are similar to 'pull' factors which tend to attract individuals or increase the population of an area.