Subhash Chandra Bose
Subhash Chandra Bose one of the most prominent leaders in the freedom struggle of India was born on 23rd January 1897 in Cuttack, Orissa, India. He passed away on 18th August 1945. He was born to a religious and pious lady, Prabhavati Devi and a famous lawyer, Janaki Nath Bose and was the most brilliant sibling out of the 14 children. He completed graduation in Philosophy with a First Class Degree from Calcutta’s Scottish Churches College. Swami Vivekananda’s teachings influenced him a lot. As a student he was known well for his zeal in patriotism.
He was called Netaji, affectionately by the Indian people. He has made immense contributions to the Indian freedom struggle, even if Jawaharlal Nehru and Mahatma Gandhi have garnered more credit for it. In the Indian history annals, a rightful place has not been given to him. In 1938 and 1939 he was elected President of the Congress. To overthrow the British Empire from the country, he founded Azad Hind Fauj, the National Army. Among the Indian people he has acquired the status of a legend.
Joining The Indian National Congress
To compete for the Indian Civil Services, in 1919, he went to England, appeared for the Indian Civil Services Exam in the year 1929 and was fourth in the merit list. In 1921 he left his apprenticeship in Civil Services and returned to India, after feeling very disturbed by the Jallianwalla Bagh massacre. He was deeply influenced by Mahatma Gandhi and joined the INC, Indian National Congress to work as his political guru. He was successful in showing his mettle in leadership and worked his way up the hierarchy in the Congress. He worked under his political guru Deshbandhu Chittaranjan Das. The Motilal Nehru Committee which was appointed by the Congress made a declaration regarding the Domination Status in 1928. However, Jawaharlal Nehru and Subhash Chandra opposed it and asserted complete freedom for India.
Subhash made the announcement of the Independence League formation and in 1930 during the Civil Disobedience movement, was jailed to be released after the signing of the Gandhi-Irwin pact in 1931. On the hanging of Bhagat Singh and his associates he started protesting the suspension of the Civil Disobedience Movement. Under the unpopular Bengal Regulation, again he was arrested and released on medical grounds after 12 months and was banished to Europe from India.
Efforts From Europe
While in Europe, in an effort to promote cultural-politico contact, he took many steps such as the establishment of many centers in the capitals of Europe. He returned to India, defying the ban on an entry to India. Again he was arrested and put into jail for one year. In 7 of the Indian states, the Congress gained power, after the 1937 General Elections, after which he was released. In 1938 he was elected the Haripur Congress Session’s President. That very year in October he set up the National Planning Committee.
In early 1939, during the end of his first term, took place the presidential elections to the Tripur Congress session and was re-elected. During that time, World War II clouds started coming on the horizon. He brought in a resolution for the British to hand over the country to the Indian people and promised a revolt, if the British failed to do so. This rigid stand gained much opposition due to which he had to resign from the President’s post. He formed the Forward Block, a progressive group later.
He began a mass movement against using resources and men from India for the war. In Calcutta he was put under a house arrest after his call gained tremendous response. He disappeared from his Calcutta home in January 1941 and via Afghanistan reached Germany. He decided to work on the maxim that the enemy of an enemy is a friend and accordingly he sought the cooperation of Japan and Germany against the British in India. From Radio Berlin he started his broadcasts regularly, which fired a lot of enthusiasm in a lot of Indian people. He came to Singapore in July 1943 from Germany to take over the reins of the East Asian Indian Independence Movement from Rash Behari Bose. He organized the INC – the Indian Independence Movement which attracted many people in India.
In the Second World War, Germany and Japan were defeated and the Indian National Army had to retreat due to the non achievement of objective. Subhash Chandra Bose was killed over Taipeh in Taiwan reported in an airplane crash on 18th August 1945 but was believed to be alive even after the crash. No information about him could be found.