The kingdom of Sicily 1130–1302
The Kingdom of Sicily existed in the southern tip of the Italian Peninsula and little bit of Africa. It was in 1130 that Roger II who consolidated Sicily and this kingdom survived till 1816. After 1302 this island was known as Kingdom of Trinacria. In 1816 Sicily merged with Kingdom of Naples and it was now known as Kingdom of the Two Sicilies. In 1861 the Kingdom of the Two Sicilies merged with Sardinia and many other northern states and duchies. The new kingdom was called Kingdom of Italy.
Norman (1130-94): On December 25th 1130 the Norman Kingdom was created by Roger II of Sicily. Pope Innocent II had given his consent for this. The Norman Kingdom included the land that was inherited Roger II from his father. Maltese Archipelago, County of Sicily, Emirates of Sicily and Duchy of Apulia were the areas under the Norman control. After a few cessation initiated by Pope Innocent II, some areas were consolidated. Roger even took control of the papacy which was resisted by the Pope but had to give in March 1139. Others who ruled the Norman Kingdom were William I, William II, Tancred I, Roger III, William III and Constance.
Hohenstaufen (1194-1266) dynasty took over Sicily once Henry VI, the husband of Constance took over. Frederick, the son of Constance and Henry VI of Hohenstaufen dynasty ascended the throne. He was very young then. He went on to become the Holy Roman Emperor in 1197. He was a king of great ability. After his death and after two more rulers Conrad I a young boy ascended the throne. In this circumstance papacy felt it was right to interfere and offered the throne to Henry III of England in 1255. Manfred the illegitimate son of Frederick took over in 1258 and wanted to continue as Hohenstaufen dynasty. But that was not to be because the kingdom came under papal possession. In 1262 the pope gave the kingdom to the brother of King of France, Charles of Anjou. Manfred had to descend from power in 1266.
Citizens did not like the French officialdom and rebelled. It finally resulted in the War of the Sicilian Vespers from 1282 and this war came to an end in 1302 with the Peace of Caltabellotta. Sicily was divided into two again. The island of Sicily was called Kingdom of Sicily and peninsular was called the Kingdom of Naples. The division was made permanent in 1372 with the Treaty of Villeneuve.